The Armenian translator has clearly done what we have had some reason to suspect in the case of the syriac translator. He has dealt freely with his original, adding words and even sentences, and introducing the stock phrases of a later theology.But this, while it diminishes very considerably the amount of the evidence which can be produced from his version, does not materially affect its value. Phrases which are only found in the Armenian, or only found in the syriac, may be dismissed as possibly the inventions of the respective translators: but there remains a considerable quantity of matter common to the two versions, which therefore presupposes a greek original. The question we have to ask is: What is the relation of this common matter to the Greek text now in our hands 1 A preliminary point however demands attention: Is the Armenian translated from the syriac, or is it an independent translation made directly. A few instances in which the Armenian corresponds with the Greek against the syriac will suffice to shew that it cannot come from the syriac as we now have. In the opening sentence we have greek and ' providentia ' (Arm.) against 'goodness' (Syr.). Immediately afterwards Greek and ' luna ' (Arm. which the syriac omits.
Summary of the meaning of The
And he youth it is that by his wickedness purchased praises, because by the excellence of his wisdom he was concealed: and he it is that, as ye say, sailed over the sea, and heard the voice of the sirens, because he stopped his ears with. He has obviously read it as if it were Greek, ' through the excellence of his wisdom he kept himself in the dark.' Then not seeing the point of Greek, he simply tells us that ' he stopped his ears with wax.' This of course". The parallel between the two Apologies is the more striking, because the line of argument in these hypomnemata vividly recalls parts of Aristides, and the same illustrations of the misdemeanours of the gods frequently reappear in almost the same language. The satire of the so-called Ambrosius is a much keener weapon than the simple narrative of Aristides: but there is not the same intensity of moral earnestness. It is quite credible that the later Apologist had the work of Aristides essay before him when he wrote, and endeavoured to reproduce the same arguments in what he thought was a more telling manner. Thus he says: Greek (cf. And once more: Greek (cf. Enough then has been said to shew that a syriac translator, finding an early Greek apology and desiring to reproduce it in his own language, might have no scruple whatever in dealing very freely with his author, in expunging sentences which he was not able. The syriac translator of the Oratio ad Gentiles has clearly so treated his unknown author; and this fact removes any a priori objection to the supposition that the syriac translator of Aristides has acted in a similar way. (2) we are fortunate in having an additional source of evidence in the Armenian fragment which contains the opening sentences of the Apology.
Here then we have a similar problem to that of the Apology of Aristides; and in this case we are not hampered by the consideration that the Greek may possibly have been abbreviated to fit it for incorporation into a religious novel. Few will be disposed to challenge the verdict of Otto 4, that the syriac translator has so altered and amplified his original as almost to have produced a new work. We may give one more illustration of the manner in which the translator has proceeded. We have seen already that he has paraded at the outset his independent acquaintance with Homer. 73 Where type Ulysses is alluded to, later on, the Greek has a sentence full of satire and liable to be misunderstood. Corresponding to this we find in the syriac Version: 'but respecting the guile of Odysseus, son of laertes, and his murders, who shall tell? For to a hundred and ten suitors in one day his house was a grave, and was filled with dead bodies and blood.
In the absence of further documents, the question must be decided largely by internal evidence and the minute investigation of the points of difference. But there are two external sources from which light may be thrown upon the problem. (1) In 1855 Cureton published in his Spicilegium Syriacum a treatise bearing the title: 'hypomnemata, which Ambrose, a chief man of Greece, wrote and commencing with the words: 'do not suppose, men and Greeks, that without fit and just cause is my separation from your. Moreover, as in the case of our shredder Apology, the variation begins to shew itself immediately after the first sentence, which I have"d. For the Greek continues thus: Greek. But the syriac replaces this by the following, as Cureton renders it: 'for I have investigated the whole of your wisdom of poetry, and rhetoric, and philosophy; and when I found not anything right or worthy of the deity, i was desirous of investigating the. Men and Greeks, when I had made the enquiry i found not any folly, as in the famous Homer, who says respecting the wars of the two rivals, "for the sake of Helen many of the Greeks perished at Troy, far from their beloved home.".
Thus at the end of each description of the several gods and goddesses of the heathen, the syriac Version points the moral and drives home the inevitable conclusion: and again such histories as those of Kronos and of Isis and Osiris are somewhat more elaborately. Are we then to conclude that the syriac translator has enlarged upon his original, and supplemented it here and there from his own resources? Or must we say that the author of 'barlaam and Josaphat' found the Apology too long for his purpose, and pruned away unnecessary details? The second hypothesis has a prima facie probability, and the general reputation for faithfulness of Syriac translators might point us in the same direction. On the other side it is to be observed that, even when read in the light of the syriac Version, the Greek form is still felt to be a harmonious and consistent whole: and it certainly does not convey the impression of serious mutilation. The genius of the author, in so framing his plot as perfectly to suit the Apology which he intended to introduce, needs no further praise than is involved in the fact that hitherto no one has had the remotest suspicion that he did not write. If anything could make his genius appear more extraordinary still, it would be the proof that he had consistently compressed the original document in almost every alternate sentence without leaving any traces of rough handling: but such proof is at present not forthcoming.
Commentary on the, apology
Or, as he says again, lowering his metaphor; 'he beckoned to the bow multitude to keep silence, and he opened his mouth, and like balaam's ass he spake that which he had not purposed to speak; and he said to the abortion king: i, o king,. What modifications then were required to fit the Apology for its new surroundings? (1) The king is of course addressed throughout: but this is so in the original piece. Only a short sentence at the end praises the wise choice of the king's son. (2) The fourfold division of mankind into barbarians and Greeks, jews and Christians, was out of place in an Indian court. We find in its stead a triple division-worshippers of false gods, jews and Christians: and the first class is subdivided into Chaldeans, Greeks and Egyptians, as being the ringleaders and teachers of heathenism to the rest of the world.
(3) A short passage at the close, in which the Christians are defended from the foul charges so often brought against them in the first days, was out of date and consequently has disappeared. (4) If we add to this that there are traces of compression here and there, and that the description of the Christians at the close is considerably curtailed, we have exhausted the list of substantial modifications which can with certainty be detected. The substance of the Apology then is for the most part faithfully preserved: but can we say that with the exceptions already named we have the actual Greek words of Aristides himself? The first and most obvious test to apply is that of comparative length. The syriac is, speaking roughly, half as long again as the Greek: and this difference is not fully accounted for by the combination in the latter of the preliminary statements about the jews and the Christians with the fuller descriptions of them given later. 71 The fact is that the syriac has a large number of repetitions and not a few additional details which are absent from the Greek.
He inquires whether accidents may befal any man, and whether every man must come at last to miserable old age or death. There is but one answer: and the joy has fled from his life. A monk of the desert, barlaam by name, is divinely warned of the prince's condition; and comes disguised as a merchant, and obtains entrance to the prince to shew him a most goodly pearl. In a long discourse, into which Gospel parables and Eastern apologues are skilfully woven, he expounds to him the vanity of the world and the Christian hope of the life to come. In the end the prince is baptized, and Barlaam disappears into the desert. The king, distracted with rage on the one hand and love for his son on the other, casts about for means to shake his faith.
A wily counsellor propounds a plan. An old man, who closely resembles Barlaam and who is an admirable actor, is to defend the cause of Christianity in an open debate. He is to make a lame speech, and be easily refuted by the rhetoricians. The prince, seeing his instructor baffled, will renounce his newly accepted faith. The day comes, and Nachor, for this is the old man's name, appears to personate barlaam. Josaphat addresses him in vigorous terms, reminding him of the difficulties in which his instructions have involved him, and promising him a miserable fate if he fails to prove his point. Nachor is not reassured by this mode of address; but after some preliminary fencing on the part of the rhetoricians he begins to speak. Such, says our author, was the providence of God, that like balaam of old he had come to curse, but he ended by blessing with manifold blessings.
Poetry questions including What
An Eastern king, named Abenner, persecutes the Christians, and paper especially the monks, whom he expels from India. He is childless; but at length the young prince josaphat is born, and the astrologers, as in the case of Buddha, predict for him an extraordinary greatness. They add however that he will become a christian. This his father determines to prevent. He encloses him in a magnificent palace; allows none but young and beautiful attendants to approach him; and forbids the mention of sorrow, disease and death, and above all of Christianity. When the prince is grown to man's estate he asks his father to give him liberty. His entreaties are at length successful, as it seems that otherwise his life will be saddened, and the first step will have been taken towards his reception of the forbidden faith. He is allowed to drive out, but the way is carefully prepared beforehand, and guarded from the 69 intrusion of sad sights and sounds. At last precaution fails, and he sees one day a lame man and a blind man, and another day a man wrinkled and tottering with age.
Mouni, or Buddha; and a number of the apologues scattered over the piece have also been identified as Eastern stories of a very early date. The popularity of the book has rarely been equalled in the history of literature. Before the 13th century it had plans been translated into almost every known language of the world; an Icelandic Version was made about the year 1200 by the order of a norwegian king; and there is an early English rendering in metre. It has lately been argued, and I think with success, by zotenberg 1, that the book is much earlier than the time. John of Damascus; and that the matter which it has in common with several of his works is drawn from previous writers such as Gregory nazianzen and Nemesius. This being so, it may well go back to the 6th century, or perhaps earlier still. The outline of the story is as follows.
a long speech, i found the words: 'Ego, rex, providentia dei veni in mundum; et considerans celum et terram, mare et solem et lunam, et cetera, admiratus sum ornatum eorum.' The Greek text of 'barlaam and Josaphat '. John of Damascus: and it was not long before i was reading the actual words of the Apologist himself: Greek, it was with some impatience that I waited for my return to cambridge, in order to examine the proof sheets again, and so to discover. To what extent then does the Greek speech in 'barlaam and Josaphat' correspond to the syriac Version of the Apology of Aristides? In other words: How far may we claim to have recovered the original Apology in the language in which it was written? The circumstances under which the Greek has been preserved at all demand first a brief notice. 'The life of Barlaam and 68, joasaph (or Josaphat is the title of a religious romance, which, by a tradition dating at the latest from the 11th century, has been connected with the name. It is true that. Barlaam and Josaphat find a place in the calendars of both the eastern and Western Churches: but it has long been recognised that their 'life' is a working up of the Indian legend of sakya.
This has been almost entirely omitted. Appendix, the remains of the original greek. Of, the apology of aristides, bY,. Fellow and assistant tutor of christ's college cambridge. The original greek of the apology of aristides. While Mr Harris was passing the preceding pages through owl the press, he kindly allowed me to read the proof sheets of his translation of the syriac. Shortly afterwards as I was turning over Latin Passionals at vienna in a fruitless search for a lost.
Summary and Analysis of, das Kapital
Icq best viagra owl without. Prescription Tom, nhfhenTom ( 11:37:44) cialis on line best place to buy viagra online without prescriptionbuying viagra without prescriptionviagra without side effects buy cialis online buy viagra without prescription ukordering viagra without prescriptionviagra brand without prescription. a online /a m viagra without prescription in canada tom. Prescription Tom, nhfhenTom ( 01:37:17) calais purchase viagra without prescriptionmail order viagra without prescriptionviagra without a prescription order homepage best price on viagra without rxgeneric viagra without prescriptionfree viagra sample without doctor a canada /a m viagra without buy prescription Tom. The Apology of Aristides: Texts and Studies 1 (1891). Appendix: The remains of the Original Greek of the Apology of Aristides. Extracts, the Apology of Aristides: Texts and Studies 1 (1891). Extracts, note to the online edition: much of this appendix is directed to a hypothetical reconstruction of other documents, with copious citation of the Greek. .