Third, there are few industry standard operating practices (SOPs) for aquaculture; additional research is needed for developing these sops, including types and sources of feed for species cultivated through aquaculture. Finally, in order to produce a stable source of food, researchers must better understand how biodiversity plays a role in preventing the sudden collapse of fisheries and develop best practices for fishing, aquaculture, and reducing bycatch. On the issue of food, nasa is atypically mum. It does not claim it will feed the world with whatever it finds or plans to grow on Mars, jupiter, or any other place light years away. The oceans are likely to be of great help. Energy, nasa and its supporters have long held that its work can help address the earths energy crises. One nasa project calls for developing low-energy nuclear reactors (lenrs) that use weak nuclear force to create energy, but even nasa admits that were still many years away from large-scale commercial production. Another project envisioned orbiting space-based solar power (sbsp) that would transfer energy wirelessly to earth.
Ppt, soil, exploration, part ii powerPoint Presentation
There are several potential approaches to dealing with overfishing. Marine fish cultivated through aquaculture is reported to cost less than other animal proteins and does not consume limited freshwater sources. Furthermore, aquaculture has been a stable source of food from 1970 to 2006; that is, it consistently expanded and was very rarely subject to unexpected shocks. From 1992 to 2006 alone, aquaculture expanded from.2.8 million tons of product. Justine serebrin, sanctuary, oil and watercolor on translucent paper, 25 Although aquaculture is rapidly expanding—more than to 2008—and represented more than 40 of global fisheries production in 2006, a number of challenges require attention if aquaculture is to significantly improve worldwide supplies of food. First, scientists have yet to understand the impact of climate change on aquaculture and fishing. Ocean acidification is likely to damage entire ecosystems, and rising temperatures cause marine organisms to migrate away from their original territory or die off entirely. It is important to study the ways that these processes will likely play out and how their effects might be for mitigated. Second, there are concerns that aquaculture may harm wild stocks of fish or the ecosystems in which they are raised through overcrowding, excess waste, or disease. This is particularly true where aquaculture is devoted to growing species alien to the region in which they are produced.
Fish and mollusks provide an important source of protein for a billion of the poorest people on Earth, and about three billion people get 15 percent or more of their annual protein from the sea, says Matthew huelsenbeck, a marine scientist affiliated with the ocean. Fish can be of enormous literature value to malnourished people because of its high levels of micronutrients such as Vitamin a, iron, zinc, calcium, and healthy fats. However, many scientists have raised concerns about the ability of wild fish stocks to survive such exploitation. The food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that 28 of fish stocks were overexploited worldwide and a further 3 were depleted in 2008. Other sources estimate that 30 of global fisheries are overexploited or worse. There have been at least four severe documented fishery collapses—in which an entire regions population of a fish species is overfished to the point of being incapable of replenishing itself, leading to the species virtual disappearance from the area—worldwide since 1960, a report from the. Moreover, many present methods of fishing cause severe environmental damage; for example, the. Economist reported that bottom trawling causes up to 15,400 square miles of dead zone daily through hypoxia caused by stirring up phosphorus and other sediments.
Since the mid-18th century, the acidity of the surface of the ocean, measured by the waters concentration of hydrogen ions, has increased by 30 on average, with negative consequences for mollusks, other calcifying organisms, and the ecosystems they support, according to the Blue ribbon Panel. Different ecosystems have also been found to exhibit different levels of ph variance, with certain areas such as apple the california coastline experiencing higher levels of ph variability than elsewhere. The cost worldwide of mollusk-production losses alone could reach 100 billion if acidification is not countered, says Monica contestabile, an environmental economist and editor. Much remains to be learned about whether and how carbon sequestration methods like iron fertilization could contribute with to ocean acidification; it is, however, clearly a crucial subject of study given the dangers of climate change. Food, ocean products, particularly fish, are a major source of food for major parts of the world. People now eat four times as much fish, on average, as they did in 1950. The worlds catch of wild fish reached an all-time high.4 million tons in 1996; although it has since declined, the worlds wild marine catch remained.9 million tons in 2011.
Alana quinn, justine serebrin, soul of The sea, oil on translucent paper, 25 despite these promising findings, there are a number of challenges that prevent us from using the oceans as a major means of combating climate change. First, ocean sinks have already absorbed an enormous amount of CO2. It is not known how much more the oceans can actually absorb, because ocean warming seems to be altering the absorptive capacity of the oceans in unpredictable ways. It is further largely unknown how the oceans interact with the nitrogen cycle and other relevant processes. Second, the impact of CO2 sequestration on marine ecosystems remains underexplored. The joint Ocean Commission Initiative, which noted in a 2013 report that absorption of CO2 is acidifying the oceans, recommended that the administration and Congress should take actions to measure and assess the emerging threat of ocean acidification, better understand the complex dynamics causing and. The department of Energy specifically calls for greater understanding of ocean biogeochemistry and of the likely impact of carbon injection on ocean acidification.
Geotechnical exploration works - introductory part
Serebrins close observations of underwater landscapes inform her paintings, which are based upon what she describes as the words deep power of the ocean. She has traveled to the beaches of Spain, mexico, hawaii, the caribbean, and the western and eastern coasts of the United States. The variety of creatures, cleanliness, temperature and emotion evoked from each location greatly influence her artwork. She creates the paintings above water, but is exploring the possibility of painting underwater in the future. Her goal with this project is to promote ocean awareness and stewardship.
Serebrin is currently working on The Illuminated Water Project which will enable her to increase the scope and impact of her work. Her paintings have been exhibited at the masur Museum of Art, monroe, louisiana; the new Orleans Museum of Art, lousiana; and the Mcnay museum of Art, san Antonio, texas. She is a member of the surfrider foundation and the Ocean Artists Society. She is the co-founder of The Upper Six Hundreds Artist Collective, comprised of artists, designers, musicians, writers, and many others who are working together to redefine the conventions of the traditional art gallery through an integration of creative practice and community engagement. She holds a bfa from Otis College of Art and Design, los Angeles. Visit her website.
The oceans have absorbed almost one-third of anthropogenic CO2 emitted since the advent of the industrial revolution and have the potential to continue absorbing a large share of the co2 released into the atmosphere. Researchers are exploring a variety of chemical, biological, and physical geoengineering projects to increase the oceans capacity to absorb carbon. Additional federal funds should be allotted to determine the feasibility and safety of these projects and then to develop and implement any that are found acceptable. Iron fertilization or seeding of the oceans is perhaps the most well-known of these projects. Just as CO2 is used by plants during photosynthesis, co2 dissolved in the oceans is absorbed and similarly used by autotrophic algae and other phytoplankton.
The process traps the carbon in the phytoplankton; when the organism dies, it sinks to the sea floor, sequestering the carbon in the biogenic ooze that covers large swaths of the seafloor. However, many areas of the ocean high in the nutrients and sunlight necessary for phytoplankton to thrive lack a mineral vital to the phytoplanktons survival: iron. Adding iron to the ocean has been shown to trigger phytoplankton blooms, and thus iron fertilization might increase the co2 that phytoplankton will absorb. Studies note that the location and species of phytoplankton are poorly understood variables that affect the efficiency with which iron fertilization leads to the sequestration of CO2. In other words, the efficiency of iron fertilization could be improved with additional research. Proponents of exploring this option estimate that it could enable us to sequester CO2 at a cost of between 2 and 30/ton—far less than the cost of scrubbing CO2 directly from the air or from power plant smokestacks—1,000/ton and 50-100/ton, respectively, according to one Stanford. Growing up on the southern California coast, justine serebrin spent countless hours snorkeling. From an early age she sensed that the ocean was in trouble as she noticed debris, trash, and decaying marine life consuming the shore. She credits her childhood experiences with influencing her artistic imagination and giving her a feeling of connectedness and lifelong love of the ocean.
Nasa rover Curiosity finds water in Mars soil - report
Climate, there is wide consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is warming; that the net effects of this warming are highly negative; and that the main general cause of this warming is human actions, among which carbon dioxide emissions play a key role. Hence, curbing these co2 emissions or mitigating their effects is a major way to avert climate change. Space exploration advocates are quick to claim that space might solve such problems on Earth. In some ways, they are correct; nasa does make helpful contributions to climate science by way of its monitoring programs, which measure the atmospheric concentrations and emissions of greenhouse gases and a variety of other key variables on the earth and in the atmosphere. However, there seem to be no viable solutions to climate change that involve space. By contrast, it is already clear that the oceans offer a plethora of viable solutions to the earths most pressing troubles. For example, scientists have already demonstrated that the oceans serve as a carbon sink.
The nation should begin transforming three the national Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (noaa) into a greatly reconstructed, independent, and effective federal agency. In the present fiscal climate of zero-sum budgeting, the additional funding necessary for this agency should be taken from the national Aeronautics and Space Administration (nasa). The basic reason is that deep space—nasas favorite turf—is a distant, hostile, and barren place, the study of which yields few major discoveries and an abundance of overhyped claims. By contrast, the oceans are nearby, and their study is a potential source of discoveries that could prove helpful for addressing a wide range of national concerns from climate change to disease; for reducing energy, mineral, and potable water shortages; for strengthening industry, security, and. Nevertheless, the funding allocated for nasa in the consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act for fy 2013 was.5 times higher than that allocated for noaa. Whatever can be said on behalf of a trip to mars or recent aspirations to revisit the moon, the same holds many times over for exploring the oceans; some illustrative examples follow. (I stand by my record:. The moondoggle, published in 1964, i predicted that there was less to be gained in deep space than in near space—the sphere in which communication, navigations, weather, and reconnaissance satellites orbit—and argued for unmanned exploration vehicles and for investment on our planet instead of the.
these zones were partially delineated by previous operators and further expanded with more recent drilling by newmont and Rare Element, leading to delineation. Ni 43-101 compliant inferred gold resource prepared. For Rare Element. April 2011 and which was included in a previous technical report, dated April 2012. Seo version, table of Contents, flash Version). Amitai etzioni, possible solutions to the worlds energy, food, environmental, and other problems are far more likely to be found in nearby oceans than in distant space. Every year, the federal budget process begins with a white house-issued budget request, which lays out spending priorities for federal programs. From this moment forward, President Obama and his successors should use this opportunity to correct a longstanding misalignment of federal research priorities: excessive spending on space exploration and neglect of ocean studies.
6.2.2, gold Resources, rare Element, through its predecessor entity, paso rico (usa and Newmont North. American Exploration signed an agreement to establish the sundance gold exploration venture on June 1, 2006. This agreement was terminated in may 2010, with Rare Element becoming the sole participant in the gold exploration project. Element continued exploration of gold on the property in 2010 following the termination of the rare Element/Newmont joint venture. The gold target areas were a result of the collaborative exploration efforts by newmont and Rare Element under the prior joint venture. Those joint efforts were based upon information in a historical database containing results from earlier exploration activities. Zones of anomalous gold mineralization in rock chip and soil samples are widespread plan in the bear Lodge intrusive complex and superjacent sedimentary rocks.
Soil, exploration and Sampling for Science and Education
Rare Element Resources, bear Lodge Project, canadian ni 43-101 Technical Report. 0 6-5 areas—now termed the Whitetail Ridge resource area. The mineralized portions of the holes are reported to have many small mineralized veins and veinlets in a stockwork deposit, and the average grade was.5 ree for nearly all of the holes. In 1990, the usbm re-evaluated the earlier work and drilling results. The usbm probably had access to considerably more exploration data from the area, possibly including the duval and Molycorp drill data, old and new surface trench sampling data, and the usgs surface sampling assay results. The usbm reported for the area drilled that A general estimate of the ree resource possible in the stockwork deposit in the bear Lodge area was calculated to be approximately 84 million short tons (76.2 million tonnes) containing.5 reo within 200 feet (61 meters). The estimate was made by assuming.6 square revelation mile (1.6 square kilometers) area, a 100 feet (30.5 meter) average depth of stockwork reo mineralization, an average grade.5, and a tonnage factor of 1 short ton/12 cubic feet (1 tonne /.34 cubic. This historical estimate should only be used as an indication of exploration potential.