In fact, he either seemed to have totally missed, or not comprehended at all, the most elementary issues of the current Science, values and worldview' controversy.10. It is a basic tenet of the psychology of perception that hypotheses precede observations, that to perceive' something is to impose preconceived' mental order upon. Likewise, the history of science teaches us that scientific revolutions' occur not because of observed facts but because of changed paradigms. Disciplines, to use the very categories propounded by counelis, are born within the matrix of particular worldviews, are forever valueladen and can never pass judgement on the values themselves. Intents are prior to actions and there are no facts without values; facts are taken' not given made' not observed' as even the etymology itself implies. The most essential component of a worldview is its teleology: it is an axiological claim about how things ought to be rather than about how they are.
Islam and the, west - sample Essays
Discipline and tries to establish its relationship with. Though correctly perceiving Disciplines to be hierarchically subordinated to worldviews, he then, nebulously and inconsistently, bestows an autonomous status to disciplines and proposes an intraworldview debate through the arbitration of these supposedly independent Disciplines! The logic, or lack of it, is individual flabbergasting. No worldview submits itself to the judgement of any discipline that has arisen out of its own ground, and least of all is it susceptible to the claims of unindigenous disciplines. Marxism would not dream of having its truth' tested by the canons of Buddhist logic; Christianity would not apply the techniques of psychoanalysis to the personality of its saviour, and Islam finds Occidental attempts at the exegesis of the qur'ân by historicist epistemology extremely odious. It is hardly likely that counelis is unaware of 'these elementary logical rules: no, he seems to have fallen into the usual trap of the objectivity of certain scientific disciplines'. Why would he otherwise regard, for instance, gamow's big bang' theory as challenge to theistic religions such as Islam and Christianity'? By what empirical norms is Gamow's cosmogony more credible than the traditional ones of Islam and Christianity? Is one to assume that counelis believes that cosmogonies are bereft of ideological content and independent of any telelogical intent? If the big bang' cosmogony of Gamow does not signify the worldview of nihilism and scepticism for counelis, then he may justifiably be accused of being a total stranger in the thorny terrain of epistemology.
Behind the smokescreen of cumbersome syntax, pompous phraseology and endless, unnecessary detail, there lurks a monstrous conception of man and a covert plea for genetic manipulation. This Muslim finds such thinking extremely dangerous and, if adopted, auguring catastrophic consequences for the muslim intellectual tradition. Were it not for these practical implications, it would have been better to have left it to speak for itself: pdf it itself best reveals the tragic limitations of linear reasoning.8 But as counelis' essay, if not his argument, deserves a muslim review because of the. Counelis' paper is interesting on two counts: one, because of the epistemological confusion of his cybernetical approach; two, because of his unreserved sanctioning of Sociobiology, betraying no compunction against its questionable ethical intent. Both these points need further elaboration. Central to counelis' model îs the now widely accepted notion of 'worldview' and its arbitrary fourfold division into the categories of Cosmology, ethos, dynamics and Telos. If we disregard the tedious elaboration of detail and exemplification (in Islamic cases based on superficial observation) and a few logical inconsistencies,9 the model itself need not be questioned rigorously: it is after all a hypothetical creation and not an empirical reality and counselis certainly. The difficulties arise, however, when counelis launches his concept.
An ineluctable corollary of the disparate terminology referred to above is that the west, not least because of its selfavowal, is regarded an empirical reality full of human achievements and failures, but existing, nonetheless, hic et nunc. Contrariwise, islam stands for transcendent ideals that are not subject to historical arbitration.6 Consequently, our treatment of the topic in this book has been almost totally theoretical, recognising no empirical limitations. Doubtless, the approach is beset with serious epistemological limitations and many valid intellectual objections can be raised against our adopted stance. Nevertheless, it is justified on the grounds that the subject matter discussed in these pages is amenable only to this kind of treatment. Furthermore, the whole ideological framework of Islam needs to be presented to the west in a fresher intellectual expression. As it is, there is a perceptible discrepancy of concepts and terms employed to express Islam visàvis the west.7 A common idiom that could do some justice to the intellectual traditions of both the civilisations is s adl y lacking and the one employed here. Any facile amalgamation of the two traditions will not lead to synthesis but to confusion' as James. Counelis' paper too clearly shows. Despite its impressive array of theological concepts, cybernetical logic and mathematical formulae, it is a futile exercise in spurious methodology.
Origin Of, islam, essay - 2464 Words
First and foremost, it was a problem of Christian theodicy: what purpose did a new revelation' serve when God Himself had already appeared on this earth? How does the advent of the new Arabian prophet, long after the age of prophecy had culminated in the crucifixion and resurrection of God's Son, fit into the divine scheme of salvation? These were and still are the main theological issues Christianity was and still is forced to take into consideration in its relationship with Islam. Practically too, islam was a problem that no Christian could ignore: the great might of its empire and its armies made this painfully manifest. Ideologically, too, islam posed itself as a problem: its sway over the minds of countless people, even its facile success in converting millions of Christians, was a matter incomprehensible to medieval Christianity. How, if at all, the problem' of Islam was solved' in actual history is beyond the scope of this essay, but the present tension testifies that the problem' still awaits a successful response, let alone any solution'.4.
What is equally noteworthy and much less debated is thathe modern, postRenaissance west too poses itself as a problem of equal vigour to contemporary Islam. It is a problem' which is experienced, in a similar way, as religious, practical and ideological. As a religious problem, the secular, faustian West represents the ultimate threat to homo religiosus: that of the human essay vicegerent usurping the true sovereign. This, one can easily perceive, is tantamount to negating the very raison d'être of homo islamicus who, as the religious man par excellence, finds the secular West particularly menacing.5. Essentially, however, the west is a practical problem for Islam: a problem not only of political and military might but that of institutional and intellectual superiority as well. It is a problem that could, literally speaking, threaten the very existence of the muslim world or its Islamicness'. The search for synthesis for Muslims is thus not an intellectual luxury but a matter of survival.
Essentially, the search for synthesis signifies the need for an intellectual and ideological détente between the Islamic' and the western' worlds. More specifically, the muslim goal in achieving this synthesis is nothing less than the appropriation of modern historically and ideologically Occidental civilisation without forfeiting its unique cultural identity. From a still narrower perspective, muslim participation in the dialogue may seem to entail a further deliberation of the question that is the main moral and intellectual issue of the contemporary muslim world: how is the specifically western institution of science and technology reconcilable with. And concomitantly, if it is to be rejected altogether, what are the Islamic options available for the reconstruction of an alternative, indigenous model? From the western vantagepoint the quest for synthesis could be construed as the next logical step in the ongoing process of the universalization of the western civilisation itself.
Having absorbed and subdued its own religious heritage of judaeochristianity to the seemingly superior and more practicable principles of secular meliorism, the west feels confident that a truly universal civilisation, bereft of all confessional partisanship, is feasible. Islam, being the closest of kin in terms of religious, historical and ideological affinity, represents to the west the outsider most likely to respond sympathetically to its wooings. The problem of synthesis is not a recent one: it betrays mankind's eternal tension between aspired universalism and actual particularism. Synthesis is also in the hegelian scheme a conciliation of two antitheses. And this is how both the civilisations of Islam and the west have perceived each other in history: as two real and irreconcilable antitheses. To medieval Christiandom Islam presented itself as an acute problem'.
Christianity vs islam essay - receive professional
Over all mazrui feels that one must distinguish between democratic principles and humane principles. Some humane principles that need to be distinguished include stabilizing the family unit, security from social violence, and the relatively nonracial nature of religious institutions where the muslim world may prove to be ahead of the west. The conceptual framework for discussing Islamic and Western approach to science and technology, as used throughout this book, gives rise to a number of theoretical questions, and hence calls for a few explanatory remarks. As envisaged here, islam and the west denote, in a superficial and theoretical manner, two civilisation units.1 The terminological connotations, however, are disparate: Islam is construed as an ideological civilisation possessing teleological orientations, whereas the west is imputed to lack, ostensibly at least, any commitment. Unless redeemed by concrete historical analysis, this system of thought would reduce Islam and the west to two of the most monstrous, from the reciprocal point of view, abstractions. No doubt, to view Islam' and the west' as two opposing and implacable adversaries locked in de plan adl y combat is intellectually absurd, historically inaccurate and politically ominous,3 for but it would be naive to view this dialogue, even if it is avowedly a quest for. The whole exercise, notwithstanding its academic conception as an intellectual problem, is, in fact, symptomatic of far greater issues.
The other conclusion is that Muslim societies historically have been more ecumenical, and are therefore more humane, than the western critics have come to recognize. However, the Islamic ecumenicalism has protected religious minorities more effectively than the westerners. Over all the western liberal democracy has enabled societies to enjoy the openness of its government? S accountability through the participation of its citizens along with a high economic productivity. However, mazrui points homework out that Western pluralism has also been the breeding ground for racism, fascism, exploitation, and genocide. Mazrui believes that if history is to end in arrival at the ultimate political order, it will require more than the western teachings on how to maximize the best in human nature. Mazrui also believes that mankind must also be willing to address the Islamic views on how to check the worst in human nature-from alcoholism to racism, materialism to nazism, drug addiction to marxism as the opiate of the intellectuals.
yet to nominate a female into the presidential office where muslims have had two women Prime ministers. Although Muslims have moved towards female empowerment, they are still far behind in female liberation. The sources and methods of censorship may differ but censorship is just a fact of life in Western societies as it is in the muslim world. Censorship is often crudely, imposed by governments, mullahs and imams, and recently, militant Islamic movements. However, the censorship in the west, is more polished and decentralized. The practitioners in the west are financial backers of the cultural activity and entertainment advertisers that buy time on commercial television. In regards to the division of church and state and the protection of minority religions through secularism in the west, Islam has tried to protect those religions through ecumenicalism throughout its history. One conclusion that can be drawn from this is that Westerners are less well rounded in their political behavior than they believe.
The westerners seem fail to recognize how their own societies have failed to live up to their liberal mythology. Many aspects of Islamic culture that Westerners regard as medieval may even have prevailed in their own culture until fairly recently. In most cases, Islamic societies are only a few decades behind in the socially and technologically advanced Westerners. The main question that we must ask ourselves is what path leads to the highest quality of life for daddy the average citizen without the worry of being abused in the process. According to mazrui, islamic values deserve serious consideration because the west doesn? T provide the answers to all the questions being asked. Many westerners regard Muslim societies as being unenlightened when it comes to the rights of women, and it is true that the question regarding women is still troublesome in most Muslim countries. The rules regarding the Islamic beliefs on sexual modesty have often resulted in excessive segregation of the sexes in public places, sometimes bringing about questionable differences regarding women? However, muslim women have always been permitted to own property where the British women where not allowed to do so until 1870.
Fubis Term iii: Islam and the, west, islam in the, west
Perceptions Of Islam Essay, research Paper. How the west Perceives Islam and what mazrui thinks is the reality. Most Westerners tend to view the Islamic societies as somewhat backward in their beliefs according to mazrui. Commonly westerners believe that this is due to the oppressed religious beliefs of Islamics. They also believe that the Islamic society is governed inhumanely in comparison to the enlightened, well-rounded democracy of the western world. However the measurement of cultural differences between the west and Islam is somewhat complex, list and the differences between the two is narrower than assumed by most Western beliefs. Islam is not considered just a religion, and most certainly is not just a fundamentalist political movement but is a civilization and a way of life that varies from one muslim country to another.