50 Empirical view edit a number of experts on human nature have described the manifestations of original (i.e., the innate tendency to) sin as empirical facts. Biologist Richard Dawkins in his The selfish Gene states that "a predominant quality" in a successful surviving gene is "ruthless selfishness". Furthermore, "this gene selfishness will usually give rise to selfishness in individual behavior". 51 Child psychologist Burton. White, phD, 52 finds a "selfish" trait in children from birth, a trait that expresses itself in actions that are "blatantly selfish." 53 Sociologist William Graham Sumner finds it a fact that "everywhere one meets "fraud, corruption, ignorance, selfishness, and all the other vices. 54 he enumerates "the vices and passions of human nature" as "cupidity, lust, vindictiveness, ambition, and vanity". Sumner finds such human nature to be universal: in all people, in all places, and in all stations in society. 55 Psychiatrist Thomas Anthony harris, md, on the basis of his "data at hand observes "sin, or badness, or evil, or 'human nature whatever we call the flaw in our species, is apparent in every person".
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This condition is sometimes called " total depravity ". 42 Total depravity does not mean that humanity is as "thoroughly depraved" as it could become. 43 Commenting on Romans 2:14, john Calvin writes that all people have "some notions of justice and rectitude. Which are implanted by nature" all people. 44 Adam embodied the fun "whole of human nature" so when Adam sinned "all of human nature sinned". 45 The Old Testament does not explicitly link the "corruption of human nature" to Adam's sin. However, the "universality of sin" implies a link to Adam. In the new Testament, paul concurs with the "universality of sin". He also makes explicit what the Old Testament implied: the link between humanity's "sinful nature" and Adam's sin 46 In Romans 5:19, paul writes, "through Adam's disobedience humanity became sinful". 47 paul also applied humanity's sinful nature to himself: "there is nothing good in my sinful nature." 48 49 The theological "doctrine of original sin" as an inherent element of human nature is not based only on the bible. It is in part a "generalization from obvious facts" open to empirical observation.
Both the Old Testament and the new Testament teach that "sin is universal". 35 For example, psalm 51 :5 reads: "For behold I was conceived in iniquities; and in sins did my mother conceive." 36 Jesus taught that everyone is a margaret "sinner naturally" because it is mankind's "nature and disposition to sin". 37 paul, in Romans 7:18, speaks of his "sinful nature". 38 Such a "recognition that there is something wrong with the moral nature of man is found in all religions". 39 Augustine of Hippo coined a term for the assessment that all humans are born sinful: original sin. 40 Original sin is "the tendency to sin innate in all human beings". 41 The doctrine of original sin is held by the catholic Church and most mainstream Protestant denominations, but rejected by the eastern Orthodox Church, which holds the similar doctrine of ancestral fault. "The corruption of original sin extends to every aspect of human nature to "reason and will" as well as to "appetites and impulses".
29 "Two main modes of conceiving human nature—the one of which is spiritual, biblical, and theistic and the golf other "natural, cosmical, and anti-theistic." John Tulloch 21 Genesis does not elaborate the meaning of "the image of God but scholars find suggestions. One is that being created in the image of God distinguishes human nature from that of the beasts. 30 Another is that as God is "able to make decisions and rule" so humans made in God's image are "able to make decisions and rule". A third is that mankind possesses an inherent ability "to set goals" and move toward them. 31 That God denoted creation as "good" suggests that Adam was "created in the image of God, in righteousness." 32 Adam was created with ability to make "right choices but also with the ability to choose sin, by which he fell from righteousness into. 33 Thus, according to the bible, "humankind is not as God created it". 34 Fallen human nature edit main article: Fall of man by adam 's fall into sin, "human nature" became "corrupt although it retains the image of God.
23 "Humankind has its origin in God, its creator." "Humans bear the 'image of God'." Humans are "to rule the rest of creation". The bible contains no single "doctrine of human nature". Rather, it provides material for more philosophical descriptions of human nature. 24 For example, creation as found in the book of Genesis provides a theory on human nature. 25 Catechism of the catholic Church 26 in chapter "Dignity of the human person" has article about man as image of God, vocation to beatitude, freedom, human acts, passions, moral conscience, virtues and sin. Created human nature edit As originally created, the bible describes "two elements" in human nature: "the body and the breath or spirit of life breathed into it by god". By this was created a "living soul that is, a "living person". 27 According to genesis 1:27, this living person was made in the "image of God". 28 From the biblical perspective, "to be human is to bear the image of God".
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The cultivation of learning and keeping intellectual growth of the philosopher, which is thereby also the happiest and least painful life. In Chinese thought edit human nature is a central question in Chinese philosophy. 19 Human nature was considered by confucius and Mencius to be essentially good. 19 From the song dynasty the theory of the original goodness of human beings dominated Confucian thought. 20 However, Hsun tzu taught that human nature was essentially evil. 19 As suggested resumes by these contrasting views, the question of human nature has generated a long debate among Chinese thinkers.
20 Christian theology edit main article: Christian theology In Christian theology, there are two ways of "conceiving human nature". The first is "spiritual, biblical, and theistic whereas the second is "natural, cosmical, and anti-theistic". 21 The focus in this section is on the former. As William James put it in his study of human nature from a religious perspective, "religion" has a "department of human nature". 22 Various views of human nature have been held by theologians. However, there are some "basic assertions" in all "biblical anthropology".
16 Man is a mimetic animal. Man loves to use his imagination (and not only to make laws and run town councils). He says "we enjoy looking at accurate likenesses of things which are themselves painful to see, obscene beasts, for instance, and corpses." And the "reason why we enjoy seeing likenesses is that, as we look, we learn and infer what each is, for instance, 'that. 17 For Aristotle, reason is not only what is most special about humanity compared to other animals, but it is also what we were meant to achieve at our best. Much of Aristotle's description of human nature is still influential today.
However, the particular teleological idea that humans are "meant" or intended to be something has become much less popular in modern times. 18 For the socratics, human nature, and all natures, are metaphysical concepts. Aristotle developed the standard presentation of this approach with his theory of four causes. Every living thing exhibits four aspects or "causes matter, form, effect, and end. For example, an oak tree is made of plant cells (matter grew from an acorn (effect exhibits the nature of oak trees (form and grows into a fully mature oak tree (end). Human nature is an example of a formal cause, according to Aristotle. Likewise, to become a fully actualized human being (including fully actualizing the mind) is our end. Aristotle ( Nicomachean Ethics, book x) suggests that the human intellect (νούς) is "smallest in bulk" but the most significant part of the human psyche, and should be cultivated above all else.
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One part is specifically human and rational, and divided into a part which is rational on its own, and a spirited part which can understand reason. Other parts of thesis the soul are home to desires or passions similar to those found in animals. In both Aristotle and Plato, spiritedness ( thumos ) is distinguished from the other passions ( epithumiai ). 14 The proper function of the "rational" was to rule the other parts of the soul, helped by spiritedness. By this account, using one's reason is the best way to live, and philosophers are the highest types of humans. Aristotle—Plato's most famous student—made some of the most famous and influential statements about human nature. In his works, apart from using a similar scheme of a divided human soul, some clear statements about human nature are made: Man is a conjugal animal, meaning an animal which is born to couple when an adult, thus building a household ( oikos ). 15 Man is a political animal, meaning an animal with an innate propensity to develop more complex communities the size of a city or town, with a division of labor and law-making. This type of community is different in kind from a large family, and requires the special use of human reason.
12 They can be offered to explain human parrot nature's origins and underlying mechanisms, or to demonstrate capacities for change and diversity which would arguably violate the concept of a fixed human nature. Classical Greek philosophy edit main article: Ancient Greek philosophy Classical Greek philosophy Philosophy in classical Greece is the ultimate origin citation needed of the western conception of the nature of a thing. According to Aristotle, the philosophical study of human nature itself originated with Socrates, who turned philosophy from study of the heavens to study of the human things. 13 Socrates is said to have studied the question of how a person should best live, but he left no written works. It is clear from the works of his students Plato and Xenophon, and also by what was said about him by Aristotle (Plato's student that Socrates was a rationalist and believed that the best life and the life most suited to human nature involved reasoning. The socratic school was the dominant surviving influence in philosophical discussion in the middle Ages, amongst Islamic, christian, and Jewish philosophers. The human soul in the works of Plato and Aristotle has a divided nature, divided in a specifically human way.
or " form " of a human. 10 However, the existence of this invariable and metaphysical human nature is a subject of much historical debate, continuing into modern times. Against this idea of a fixed human nature, the relative malleability of man has been argued especially strongly in recent centuries—firstly by early modernists such as Thomas Hobbes and jean-Jacques rousseau. In rousseau's Emile, or On Education, rousseau wrote: "We do not know what our nature permits us to be". 11 Since the early 19th century, thinkers such as Hegel, marx, kierkegaard, nietzsche, sartre, structuralists, and postmodernists have also sometimes argued against a fixed or innate human nature. Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution has changed the nature of the discussion, supporting the proposition that mankind's ancestors were not like mankind today. Still more recent scientific perspectives—such as behaviorism, determinism, and the chemical model within modern psychiatry and psychology —claim to be neutral regarding human nature. As in much of modern science, such disciplines seek to explain with little or no recourse to metaphysical causation.
This is partly because human nature can be regarded as both a source of norms of conduct or ways of life, as well as presenting obstacles or constraints on living a good life. The complex implications of such questions are also dealt with in art and literature, the question of what it is to be human. Contents overview edit The concept of nature as a standard by which to make judgments is traditionally said to have begun in Greek philosophy, at least as regards the western and Middle eastern languages and perspectives which are heavily influenced. 9 The teleological approach of Aristotle came to be dominant by late classical and medieval times. By this account, human nature really causes humans to become what they become, and so it exists somehow independently of individual humans. This in turn has been understood as also showing a special connection between real human nature and divinity. This approach understands human nature in terms of final and formal causes.
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For other uses, see, human nature (disambiguation). Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting —which humans tend to have naturally. 1 2 3 4, the questions of whether there truly are fixed characteristics, what these natural characteristics are, and what causes them are among the oldest and most important questions in philosophy and science. The science that examines human nature is known as psychology and more recently also neuroscience. 5 6 7 8, the concept of human nature is traditionally contrasted not only with unusual human characteristics, but also with characteristics which are derived from specific cultures, and upbringings. The " nature versus nurture " debate is a well-known modern discussion about human nature in the natural science. These questions have particularly important implications in economics, ethics, politics, and theology.