43 However, as late as, air Force Special Operations Forces was still disregarded by many staff planners, who saw it as a drain on resources and not a force enabler, and wanted the entire talon force transferred to the air National guard. 44 In early 1977 the combat Talon was redesignated mc-130E by headquarters Air Force for all three variants of the aircraft. 24 by november 1979, the combat Talon force of 14 mc-130Es was divided among three squadrons, the first two of which were operationally deployed, and the third at Hurlburt essentially the force training squadron: 45 1st Special Operations Squadron, kadena air Base, okinawa (four mc-130. Eagle Claw edit 1st Special Operations Squadron Following the seizure of the. Embassy in Tehran, iran, on november 4, 1979, training operations for a rescue mission of the 53 hostages began as early as november 7 by talon crews at Kadena ab, and november 26 by crews at Hurlburt. 46 At that time only seven Combat Talons had the in-flight refueling capability necessary for the mission, which was to be mounted out of either Egypt or diego garcia ( Masirah Island did not become available as a base until April 1980).
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Kraljev rehearsed the flight profile in terrain-following missions over southern Alabama, flying 368 sorties that totalled more than 1,000 hours. 40 A month of intensive joint training with the Special Forces rescue force followed at a replica of the prison camp. In early november the task force deployed to takhli royal Thai air Force base, thailand. The 24 primary foam crew members, a 7th sos crew ( Cherry 01 ) under Major Irl. "Leon" Franklin and a 1st sow crew ( Cherry 02 ) commanded by Lt Col Albert. "Friday" Blosch, conducted the mission, which was successfully executed without loss of any personnel. However the operation failed when the prison was found not to contain any prisoners. 41 Post-vietnam developments edit In 1974 the combat Talon program was nearly dismantled as the air Force sought to reverse its vietnam emphasis on special operations. The 1st Special Operations Wing was redesignated the 834th Tactical Composite wing and its Combat Talons of the 8th sos became a tac asset. However the use of 1st sos "Yank" Talons in a sea surveillance role off North Korea in 1975 revived interest in the combat Talon, 42 as did the Israeli hostage rescue at Entebbe airport. The same year, a combat Talon of the 1st Special Operations Wing was deployed in support of us marines forces on Koh Tang island during the mayaguez incident, dropping a single blu-82 15,000 lb bomb to enable their extraction.
It was again redesignated, becoming the 1st sos on December 15, 1972, and began transition from the "Clamp" to the "Yank" variant. 37 Kingpin edit mixed formation of helicopters and Combat Talon of the son tay rescue operation during a practice mission Two combat Talons were employed guaranteed as navigation escorts and for airborne control during Operation Kingpin, the operational phase of the attempted rescue of prisoners. 64-0523 was drawn from the 15th sos at Nha Trang 38 and 64-0558 from Det. 2, 1st sow at Pope afb. The aircraft were modified at las ontario with installation of fl-2b flir sets borrowed from the heavy chain project to compensate for difficulties in terrain-following created by the slow speeds necessitated by the mixed aircraft force. 39 24 primary and five backup crew personnel, all Stray goose / Combat Spear veterans detached from 7th sos ( Combat Arrow ) and 1st sow ( Combat Knife developed helicopter-fixed wing formation procedures for low level night missions and jointly trained with selected Special. Between the end of August and September 28, 1970, talon, helicopter, and A-1 skyraider crews supervised by combat Talon Program Manager.
Chief of Staff of the air Force general Norton. Schwartz presented the award to the unit during a ceremony at Hurlburt field, culminating a six-year campaign by former Stray goose member Richard. Sell 30 to achieve the recognition after the unit was not included in a puc awarded April 4, 2001, to macv-sog for the same period. 31 On March 15, 1968, apple the detachment was designated the 15th Air Commando Squadron, and then the 15th Special Operations Squadron on August 1, 1968, and made part of the 14th Special Operations Wing. In vietnam, the aircraft was used to drop leaflets over North vietnamese positions, and to insert and resupply special forces and indigenous units into hostile territory throughout southeast Asia. Combat Talon crews operated unescorted at low altitudes and at night. 32 by 1970 twelve combat Talons were operational in three units of four aircraft each: 33 7th Special Operations Squadron, ramstein Air Base, germany ; 15th Special Operations Squadron, Nha Trang Air Base, south vietnam; and Detachment 2, 1st Special Operations Wing, pope air Force. 34 The 15th sos was redesignated the 90th sos on October 23, 1970, 35 relocated to cam Ranh bay air Base, 36 then moved to kadena air Base, okinawa, in April 1972 as part of the drawdown.
Because of a lack of ramp space caused by the buildup of forces for deployment to south vietnam, they were temporarily housed at Sewart Air Force base, tennessee. The wing's 779th tcs was designated as the training squadron for the modified C-130E(I)s, under Project skyhook, in addition to its normal airlift function. Selected crew members received instructor training in their respective systems and returned to pope by may 1 to begin crew training of six crews for deployment to vietnam under Project Stray goose. 15 15th Special Operations Squadron The combat Talon I first saw operational action in the vietnam War, beginning September 1, 1966. The six Stray goose crews deployed to Ching Chuan Kang Air Base, taiwan, and forward deployed to Nha Trang Air Base, south vietnam. The deployment, known as Combat Spear, preceded operational deployment of other Combat Talons to europe ( Combat Arrow ) and the United States ( Combat Knife ). Combat Spear was administratively assigned as Detachment 1, 314th Troop Carrier Wing, but was operationally controlled by macv-sog. 29 On October 9, 2009, detachment 1, 314th Troop Carrier Wing received the Presidential Unit Citation for its support of macv-sog activities.
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20 These remained as Combat Talons until 1972, when heavy chain was gradually discontinued and its four "Yank" aircraft 20 were integrated into the combat Talon force. The two original Thin Slice aircraft were given the serials of two destroyed C-130s, 62-1843 and 63-7785 respectively, to disguise their classified origins. 10 The replacements had viable their modifications removed and returned to airlift duties, although known as "Swaps they remained available for front future combat Talon use. Both eventually became combat Talons again after further losses in the combat Talon inventory. Capability to act as a forward Area refueling point (farp) for helicopters on the ground was begun in 1980 in preparation for Operation Eagle Claw (see below although only one system could be installed before the mission was executed.
The refueling system consists of two palletized 1,800 gallon tanks (known as Benson tanks) mounted on rails within the talon that tie into the c-130's own pressurized fuel dumping pumps and require no further equipment. 26 A major modification between 19, mod-90, modernized the capability and serviceability of the talon I to extend its service life. All 14 Combat Talon Is were equipped with upgraded navigational radars, an enhanced electronic warfare suite and provided new outer wings. 27 by 1995 all Combat Talon Is were equipped with helicopter- air refueling pods. 5 28 southeast Asia operations edit The aircraft received for modification as Combat Talons were assigned in July 1965 to the 464th Troop Carrier Wing at Pope air Force base, north Carolina.
19 rivet Clamp installation began with four stars-equipped C-130s completed by march 1966, followed by installations in eight further aircraft in July 1966 and January 1967. 11 The rivet Clamp s, originally designated C-130E(I 11 were equipped with an electronic and infrared (IR) countermeasures suite; and the an/apq-115 navigational radar. This radar, adapted from the texas Instruments AN/apq-89 radar used in the rf-4C Phantom photo reconnaissance aircraft, featured terrain following/terrain-avoidance (TF/TA), doppler, and mapping radar modes, to enable it to operate at low altitudes at night and in all weather conditions and avoid known enemy. 20 21 Beginning in 1970, texas Instruments and Lockheed Air Service worked to adapt the existing AN/apq-122 Adverse weather Aerial Delivery system (awads) with terrain following/terrain avoidance modes to replace the original apq-115, which suffered throughout its life with an unacceptably adverse mean-time-between-failure (mtbf) rate. In 1970 they succeeded, and coupled the apq-122 with the litton ln-15J Inertial navigation System (INS).
Known as mod-70, the modified radar was installed in all 12 operational Combat Talons and the four heavy chain test beds between. The system proved so successful that it continued in service until the late 1980s. 22 Following the completion of mod-70, the combat Talons were divided into three designations: C-130E(CT) for the "Clamp" aircraft, c-130E(Y) for the "Yank" (formerly "Yard talons, and C-130E(S) for the "Swap". 23 The combat Talon I designations were consolidated in 1977 as the mc-130 and have remained under that designation since. 24 The combat Talon became the combat Talon i in 1984 with the authorization for the modification of 24 C-130Hs to combat Talon ii specifications. 25 The "Yank" Talons conducted top secret operations worldwide, under the project name combat Sam, until late 1972. 11 Two of the original "Clamps" were lost in combat in southeast Asia and were replaced by two c-130Es (64-0571 and -0572).
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A large helium balloon raised a nylon lift line into the air, which was snagged by a large scissors-shaped yoke attached to the nose of the plane. The yoke snagged the line and released the balloon, yanking the attached cargo off the ground with a shock less than that of an opening parachute. A sky anchor secured the line and wires stretched from the nose to both leading wing tip edges protected the propellers from the line on missed snag attempts. Crew members hooked the snagged line as it reviews trailed behind and attached it to the hydraulic winch, pulling the attached person or cargo into the plane through the rear cargo door. Following a death on, at cfb lahr, germany, 17 the fulton stars system on the Clamp aircraft underwent intense maintenance scrutiny and employment of the system for london live pickups was suspended. A major effort at upgrading the system, Project 46, 18 was pursued from 1986 to 1989, but at its conclusion, use of the stars system for live extractions remained suspended. The fulton stars equipment of all Combat Talons was removed during 1998.
The first aircraft were production C-130Es without specialized equipment that were produced at Lockheed's facility in Marietta, georgia. Three production airplanes per month were given the fulton stars (then ars) system. 11 While thesis awaiting the ars equipment, the c-130s were ferried to Greenville, south Carolina, for painting by ling-Temco-vought Electrosystems with a low-radar reflective paint that added 370 pounds to their weight. The velvet black-and-green scheme drew the nickname "Blackbirds". 15 As installation was completed, the Blackbirds were returned to Ontario for installation of the electronics package, code-named rivet Clamp. The modified aircraft became known as "Clamps" (two of the original 14, 64-0564 and -0565, were diverted to heavy chain in August 1966). 11 The aircraft collectively were assigned the designation Combat Talon in 1967. 16 The fulton Surface-to-air Recovery system was used to extract personnel and materials via air.
37 -j models. 9 Contents mc-130e combat Talon i edit mc-130e combat Talon dispensing flares mc-130 nose development edit The combat Talon was developed between December 1964 and January 1967 by lockheed Air Services (LAS) at Ontario, california, as the result of a study by big Safari, the. Two highly classified testbed aircraft (originally serial. 64-0506 and -0507, but with all numbers "sanitized" from the aircraft were assigned to Project Thin Slice to develop a low-level clandestine penetration aircraft for Special Forces operations in southeast Asia. 10 In 1964, lockheed was ordered to adapt the c-130Es after six C-123B Providers modified for "unconventional warfare" under Project Duck hook proved inadequate for the new macv-sog. 11 The modifications under Thin Slice and its August 1966 successor heavy chain were code-named rivet Yard, 12 and the four C-130Es came to be known as "Yards". 10 Discrete modification tests were conducted by the 1198th Operational evaluation and Training Squadron, out of Area ii of Norton afb at San Bernardino, california, 30 miles east of Ontario. 13 14 As the Thin Slice aircraft were being developed, 14 C-130Es were purchased for sog in 1965 for similar modification.
Ymc-130H testbed aircraft for the combat Talon. The first of the variants, the mc-130E, was developed to support clandestine special operations missions during the vietnam War. Eighteen were created by modifying C-130E transports, and four lost through attrition, type citation needed but the remainder served more than four decades after their initial modification. An update, the mc-130h combat Talon ii, was developed in the 1980s from the c-130H and went into service in the 1990s. Four of the original 24 H-series aircraft have been lost in operations. The combat Shadows were built during the vietnam War for search and rescue operations and repurposed in the 1980s as afsoc air-refueling tankers; the last of the 24 retired in 2015. The combat Spear was developed in 2006 as an inexpensive version of the combat Talon ii but was reconfigured and designated the.
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The, lockheed mc-130 is the basic designation for a family of special mission aircraft operated by the. United States Air Force Special Operations Command (afsoc a wing of the, air with Education and Training Command, and an afsoc-gained wing of the. Air Force reserve command. Based on the, lockheed, c-130 Hercules transport, the mc-130s' missions are the infiltration, exfiltration, and resupply of special operations forces, and the air refueling of (primarily) special operations helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft. Members of the family include the. Mc-130e combat Talon i, mc-130h combat Talon ii, mc-130w combat/Dragon Spear, mc-130p combat Shadow, and, mC-130j commando. A possible mc-130 variant, designated the xfc-130H, did not proceed beyond the development stage, but one of its aircraft became the.