As individuals immigrate to unequal segments of society, immigrants to areas lower on economic and ethnic hierarchies may encounter limited social mobility and membership to a disadvantaged community. 28 On a broad scale study, involving immigrants in 13 immigration-receiving countries, the experience of discrimination was positively related to the maintenance of the immigrants' ethnic culture. 29 In other words, immigrants that maintain their cultural practices and values are more likely to be discriminated against than those whom abandon their culture. It should also be noted that most individuals show variation in both their ideal and chosen acculturation strategies across different domains of their lives. For example, among immigrants, it is often easier and more desired to acculturate to their host society's attitudes towards politics and government, than it is to acculturate to new attitudes about religion, principles, and values. 30 Acculturative stress edit The large flux of migrants around the world has sparked scholarly interest in acculturation, and how it can specifically affect health by altering levels of stress, access to health resources, and attitudes towards health.
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Predictors of acculturation strategies edit The fourfold models used to describe individual attitudes of immigrants parallel models used to describe group expectations of the larger society and how groups should acculturate. 26 In a melting pot society, in which a harmonious and homogenous culture is promoted, assimilation is the endorsed acculturation strategy. In segregationist society, in which humans are separated into racial groups in daily life, a separation acculturation strategy is endorsed. In a multiculturalist society, in which multiple cultures are accepted and appreciated, individuals are encouraged to adopt an integrationist approach to acculturation. In societies where diwali cultural exclusion is promoted, individuals often adopt marginalization strategies of acculturation. Attitudes towards acculturation, and thus the range of acculturation strategies available, have not been consistent over time. For example, for most of American history, policies and attitudes have been based around established ethnic hierarchies with an expectation of one-way assimilation for predominantly White european immigrants. 27 Although loyalty the notion of cultural pluralism has existed since the early 20th century, the recognition and promotion of multiculturalism did not become prominent in America until the 1980s. Separatism can still be seen today in autonomous religious communities such as the Amish and the hutterites. Immediate environment also impacts the availability, advantage, and selection of different acculturation strategies.
Separation occurs when individuals reject the dominant or host culture in favor of preserving their culture of origin. Separation is often facilitated by immigration to ethnic enclaves. Integration occurs when individuals are able to adopt the cultural norms of the dominant or host culture while maintaining their culture of origin. Integration leads to, and is often synonymous with biculturalism. Marginalization occurs when individuals reject both their culture of origin and the dominant host culture. Studies suggest that individuals' respective acculturation strategy can differ paper between their private and public life spheres. 25 For instance, an individual may reject the values and norms of the dominant culture in his private life (separation whereas he might adapt to the dominant culture in public parts of his life (i.e., integration or assimilation).
Moreover, this idea encapsulates the importance of how receptive a host culture is to the newcomer, how easy is it for the newcomer to interact with and get to know the host, and how this interaction affects both the newcomer and the host. Fourfold models edit The fourfold model is a bilinear model that categorizes acculturation strategies along two dimensions. The first dimension concerns the retention or rejection of an individual's minority or native culture (i.e. "Is it considered to be of value to maintain one's identity and characteristics? whereas the second dimension concerns the adoption or rejection of the dominant group or host culture. Is it considered to be of value to maintain relationships thesis with the larger society? From this, four acculturation strategies emerge. 24 Assimilation occurs when individuals adopt the cultural norms of a dominant or host culture, over their original culture.
Idolic reality involves strong emotional identification, where a holy relic does not simply symbolize the sacred, it is sacred. By contrast, a christian crucifix follows a symbolic nature, where it represents a symbol of God. Lastly, the signalic modality is far less emotional and increasingly dissociated. Kramer refers to changes in each culture due to acculturation as co-evolution. Kramer also addresses what he calls the qualities of out vectors which address the nature in which the former and new cultures make contact. Kramer uses the phrase "interaction potential" to refer to differences in individual or group acculturative processes. For example, the process of acculturation is markedly different if one is entering the host as an immigrant or as a refugee.
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In other words, Kramer argues that one need not unlearn a language in order to learn a new one, nor does one have to unlearn who one is in order to learn new ways of dancing, cooking, talking and so forth. Unlike gudykunst and Kim (2003 Kramer argues that this blending of language and culture results in cognitive complexity, or the ability to switch between cultural repertoires. To put Kramer's ideas simply, learning is growth rather than unlearning. Conceptual models edit Kramer edit Although numerous models of acculturation exist, the most complete models take into consideration the changes occurring at the group and individual levels of both interacting groups. 16 to understand acculturation at the group level, one must first look at the nature of both cultures before coming into contact with one another. A useful approach is Eric Kramer's theory of Dimensional Accrual and Dissociation (DAD). Two fundamental premises in Kramer's dad theory are the concepts of hermeneutics and semiotics, which infer that identity, meaning, communication, and learning all depend on differences or variance.
According to this view, total assimilation would result in a monoculture void of personal identity, meaning, and communication. Kramer's dad theory also utilizes concepts from several scholars, most notably jean Gebser and Lewis Mumford, to synthesize explanations of widely observed cultural expressions and differences. Kramer's theory identifies three communication styles ( idolic, symbolic, or signalic online ) in order to explain cultural differences. It is important to note that in this theory, no single mode of communication is inherently superior, and no final solution to intercultural conflict is suggested. Instead, Kramer puts forth three integrated theories: the theory dimensional Accrual and Dissociation, the cultural Fusion Theory and the cultural Churning Theory. For instance, according to Kramer's dad theory, a statue of a god in an idolic community literally is god, and stealing it is a highly punishable offense. For example, many people in India believe that statues of the god Ganesh to take such a statue/god from its temple is more than theft, it is blasphemy.
371 can be viewed as a process of a potentially positive disintegration that will be reintegrated with new material at a higher level" (p. . No matter how unjust or cruel, gudykunst and Kim (2003) argue that the host's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving constitutes the "higher level" of psychic evolution and any resistance to conform indicates that the immigrant is communicatively incompetent, immature, mentally ill (pp. . 365, 372-373, 376, 381 weak (p. . 369 irrationally aggressive or hostile (pp. . 371, 376 lacking in self-control (p. . 369 simple minded (pp. .
382383) and "ethnocentric" (pp. . Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" (p. . In contradistinction from Gudykunst and Kim's version of adaptive evolution, Eric. Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion (2011, 9 2010, 10 2000a, 11 1997a, a, ) maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration. According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form. Kramer's (2000a, 2000b, 2000c, 2003, 2009, 2011) theory of Cultural Fusion, which is based on systems theory and hermeneutics, argues that it is impossible for a person to unlearn themselves and that by definition, "growth" is not a zero sum process that requires the disillusion.
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360, 371) or "mainstream culture". According to this definition, any attempt to maintain one's original values, beliefs, ways of reviews thinking, feelings, or behaviors constitutes mental illness or "maladaptation" (p. . This is further emphasized by gudykunst and Kim (2003 stating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves (p. . Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity (2003). Again, this is not integration but rather dissolution of the newcomer's original identity. According to gudykunst and Kim (2003 increased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant. Ironically, gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness caused by "conformity pressure". .
Under this definition acculturation is to be distinguished from. Assimilation, which is at times a phase of acculturation. — 6 Long before efforts toward racial and cultural integration in the United States arose, the main course of action was assimilation. In 1954, milton Gordon 's book assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic. Later, young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process. Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence. 7 Although this view was the earliest to fuse micro-psychological and macro-social factors into an integrated theory, it is clearly focused on assimilation rather than racial or ethnic ram integration. In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent." According to gudykunst and Kim (2003) 8 the "cross-cultural adaptation process involves a continuous interplay of deculturation and acculturation that brings about change. Thus, the term adaptation is used by gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power (pp. .
Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travellers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens. 2 nevertheless, the history of Western civilization, and in particular the histories of Europe and the United States, are largely defined by patterns of acculturation. One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialism, the most common predecessor of direct cultural change. Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture. The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki 's 1918 study, the polish peasant in Europe and America. From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian (adopting the host culture and abandoning their culture of origin Philistine (failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of origin and creative-type (able. 5 In 1936, redfield, linton, and Herskovits provided the first widely used definition of acculturation as: Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups.
As enculturation is used to describe the process of first-culture learning, acculturation can be thought of as second-culture learning. Since approximately one in four children in the United States live with at least one immigrant best parent, this topic is worthy of understanding and discussing. 1, scholars in different disciplines have developed more than 100 different theories of acculturation, 2 but the concept of acculturation has only been studied scientifically since 1918. 2, as it has been approached at different times from the fields of psychology, anthropology, and sociology, numerous theories and definitions have emerged to describe elements of the acculturative process. Despite definitions and evidence that acculturation entails a two-way process of change, research and theory have primarily focused on the adjustments and adaptations made by minorities such as immigrants, refugees, and indigenous peoples in response to their contact with the dominant majority. Contemporary research has primarily focused on different strategies of acculturation, how variations in acculturation affect individuals, and interventions to make this process easier. Contents, historical approaches edit, although the word "acculturation" was coined. Powell in 1880, 3 the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from 2370.
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Portraits of, native americans from the Cherokee, cheyenne, choctaw, comanche, iroquois, and book Muscogee tribes in European attire. Photos date from 1868 to 1924. Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both the original (native) and newly adopted (host) cultures. Historically speaking, acculturation is a direct change of one's culture through dominance over another's culture through either military or political conquest. At this group level, acculturation often results in changes to culture, customs, religious practices, diet, healthcare, and other social institutions. Some of the most noticeable group level effects of acculturation often include changes in food, clothing, and language. At the individual level, the process of acculturation refers to the socialisation process by which foreign-born individuals adopt the values, customs, norms, attitudes, and behaviours of the dominant host culture. This process has been linked to changes in daily behaviour, as well as numerous changes in psychological and physical well-being.