Two body paragraph essay

two body paragraph essay

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26 After World War ii edit development in East Germany edit Invalidated ungültig OdF identity card: The magistrate of East Berlin refused any pink-triangle prisoner the right to receive a pension as a "victim of fascism" ( "Opfer des Faschismus", hence "OdF" ). In the soviet Occupied Zone that later became east Germany ( see history of Germany since 1945 the development of law was not uniform. The Provincial High court in Halle ( Oberlandesgericht Halle, or olg halle ) decided for Saxony-Anhalt in 1948 that Paragraphs 175 and 175a were to be seen as injustice perpetrated by the nazis, because a progressive juridical development had been broken off and even been. Homosexual acts were to be tried only according to the laws of the weimar Republic. 27 In 1950, one year after being reconstituted as the german Democratic Republic, the berlin Appeal court ( Kammergericht Berlin ) decided for all of East Germany to reinstate the validity of the old, pre-1935 form of Paragraph 175. 27 However, in contrast to the earlier action of the olg halle, the new Paragraph 175a remained unchanged, because it was said to protect society against "socially harmful homosexual acts of qualified character". In 1954, the same court decided that Paragraph 175a, in contrast to paragraph 175, did not presuppose acts tantamount to sexual intercourse.

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This aggravation of wrote the severity of Paragraph 175 in 1935 increased the number of convictions tenfold, to 8,000 annually. 5 Only about half of the prosecutions resulted from police work; about 40 percent resulted from private accusations ( Strafanzeige ) by non-participating observers, essay and about 10 percent were denouncements by employers and institutions. So, for example, in 1938 the gestapo received the following anonymous letter: We a large part of the artists' block of flats or studios at Barnayweg ask you urgently to observe., living with Mrs. F as a subtenant, who has remarkable daily visits from young men. This must not continue. We ask you cordially to give the matter further observation. 25 In contradistinction to normal police, the gestapo were authorized to take gay men into preventive detention ( Schutzhaft ) of arbitrary duration without an accusation (or even after an acquittal ). This was often the fate of so-called "repeat offenders at the end of their sentences, they were not freed but sent for additional "re-education" ( Umerziehung ) in a concentration camp. Only about 40 percent of these pink triangle prisoners whose numbers amounted to an estimated 10,000 survived the camps. 6 Some of them, after their release by the Allied Forces, were placed back in prison, because they had not yet finished court-mandated terms of imprisonment for homosexual acts.

Further, they removed the longtime tradition that the law applied only to penetrative intercourse. A criminal offense would now exist if "objectively the general sense of shame was offended" and subjectively "the debauched intention was present to excite sexual desire in one of the two men, or a third". 22 Mutual physical contact was no longer necessary. 23 beyond that much as had already been planned in 1925 a new Paragraph 175a was created, punishing "qualified cases" as schwere Unzucht severe lewdness with no less than one year and no more than ten years in the penitentiary. 23 These included: homosexual acts forced through violence or threats (male rape sexual relations with a subordinate or employee in a work situation, homosexual acts with men under the age of 21, male prostitution. "Unnatural fornication with a beast" was moved to paragraph 175b. According to the official rationale, paragraph 175 was amended in the interest of the moral health of the volk the german people because "according to experience" remote homosexuality "inclines toward plague-like propagation" and exerts "a ruinous influence" on the "circles concerned". 24 a gestapo telex about arranging preventive detention of an "incorrigible homosexual" The documentary film Paragraph 175, a joint GermanEnglishAmerican production, publicized the effects of the law on concentration camp internees.

two body paragraph essay

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This would have constituted legalization of consensual homosexuality between adult men. 20 At the same time, a vast majority with only three kpd votes dissenting supported the introduction of the new Paragraph 297 (dealing with the so-called "qualified cases. 20 However, this partial success which the WhK characterized as "one step forward and two steps back" 21 came to nought. In March 1930, the Inter-Parliamentary committee for the coordination of Criminal Law Between Germany and Austria, by a vote of 23 to 21, placed back paragraph 296 in the reform package. But the latter was never passed, because during the last years of the weimar Republic, the years of the Präsidialkabinette ( de ), the parliamentary database legislative process generally ground to a halt. 20 21 The nazi era edit table 3: Convictions under 175, 175a and b (19331943) year Adults Youths under n/a n/a * 1943: 1st half-year doubled sources: "Statistisches reichsamt" and baumann 1968,. . 5 In 1935 the nazis strengthened Paragraph 175 by redefining the crime as a felony and thus increasing the maximum penalty from six months' to five years' imprisonment.

Weimar Republic edit table 2: Prosecutions under  175 (19191933) 5 year  Charge  Convictions / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 204 801 Middle column: Homosexuality / Bestiality There was a vigorous grassroots campaign against Paragraph 11929, led. But, much as during the time of the Empire, during the weimar Republic the parties of the left failed to achieve the abolition of Paragraph 175, because they lacked a majority in the reichstag. 19 The plans of a center- right regime in 1925 to increase the penalties of Paragraph 175 came closer to fruition; but they, too, failed. In addition to paragraph 296 (which corresponded to the old paragraph 175 their proposed reform draft provided for a paragraph 297 to be included. The plan was that so-called "qualified cases" such as homosexual prostitution, sex with young men under the age of 21, and sexual coercion of a man in a service or work situation would be classified as "severe cases reclassified as felonies ( Verbrechen ) rather. This act would have pertained not only to homosexual intercourse but also to other homosexual acts such as, for example, mutual masturbation. 19 Both new paragraphs grounded themselves in protection of public health : It is to be assumed that it is the german view that sexual relationships between men are an aberration liable to wreck the character and to destroy moral feeling. Clinging to this aberration leads to the degeneration of the people and to the decay of its strength. 19 When this draft was discussed in 1929 by the judiciary committee of the reichstag, the social Democratic Party, the communist Party, and the left-wing liberal German Democratic Party at first managed to mobilize a majority of 15 to 13 votes against Paragraph 296.

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two body paragraph essay

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15 German Empire edit table 1: Prosecutions under 175 (19021918) 5 year Charge Convictions / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 3 118 Middle column: Homosexuality / Bestiality On January 1, 1872, exactly one year. By this change, sexual intercourse between men became again a punishable offence in bavaria as well. Almost verbatim from its Prussian model from 1794, the new Paragraph 175 of the imperial penal code specified: Unnatural fornication, whether between persons of the male sex or of humans with beasts, is punished with imprisonment, with the further punishment of a prompt loss. 16 even in the 1860s, individuals such as Karl heinrich Ulrichs and Karl Maria kertbeny had unsuccessfully raised their voices against the Prussian paragraph 143. 2 In the Empire, more organized opposition began with the 1897 founding of the sexual-reformist Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (Whk, scientific-Humanitarian Committee an organization of notables rather than a mass movement, which tried to proceed against Paragraph 175 based on the thesis of the innate nature. 17 This case was argued, for example, in an 1897 petition drafted by physician and WhK chairman Magnus Hirschfeld, urging the deletion of Paragraph 175; it gathered 6,000 signatories.

17 One year later, spd chairman August Bebel brought the petition into the reichstag, but failed to achieve the desired effect. On the contrary, ten years later the government laid plans to extend Paragraph 175 to women as well. Part of their "Scheme for a german Penal Code" (E 1909) reads: The danger to family life and to youth is the same. The fact that there are more such cases in recent times is reliably testified. It lies therefore in the interest of morality as in that of the general welfare pollution that penal provisions be expanded also to women. 18 Allowing time for the refinement of the draft, it was set to appear before the reichstag no earlier than 1917. World War i and the defeat of the german Empire consigned it to the dustbin.

8 Background edit most sodomy-related laws in Western civilization originated from the growth of Christianity during Late Antiquity. 9 In 1532, the constitutio criminalis Carolina produced a foundation for this principle of law, which remained valid in the holy roman Empire until the end of the 18th century. In the words of Paragraph 116 of that code: The punishment for fornication that goes against nature. When a human commits fornication with a beast, a man with a man, a woman with a woman, they have also forfeited life. And they should be, according to the common custom, banished by fire from life into death. 10 In 1786 the austrian-born Peter leopold of Tuscany abolished the death penalty for all crimes (including sodomy) and replaced it with prison and hard labour.


11 In 1794, Prussia introduced the Allgemeines Landrecht, a major reform of laws that replaced the death penalty for this offense with a term of imprisonment. Paragraph 143 of that code says: Unnatural fornication, whether between persons of the male sex or of humans with beasts, is punished with imprisonment of six months to four years, with the further punishment of a prompt loss of civil rights. 12 In France, the revolutionary penal Code of 1791 punished acts of this nature only when someone's rights were injured (i.e., in the case of a non- consensual act which had the effect of the complete legalization of homosexuality. 13 In the course of his conquests, napoleon exported the French Penal Code beyond France into a sequence of other states such as the netherlands. Bavaria, too, adopted the French model and in 1813 removed from its lawbooks all prohibitions of consensual sexual acts. 14 In view of these developments, two years before the 1871 founding of the german Empire, the Prussian kingdom, worried over the future of the paragraph, sought a scientific basis for this piece of legislation. The ministry of Justice assigned a deputation für das Medizinalwesen deputation for medical knowledge including, among others, the famous physicians Rudolf Virchow and heinrich Adolf von Bardeleben, who, however, stated in their appraisal of March 24, 1869 that they were unable to give a scientific. 15 nevertheless, the draft penal law submitted by bismarck in 1870 to the north German Confederation retained the relevant Prussian penal provisions, justifying this out of concern for " public opinion ".

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4 In 1945, after the concentration camps were liberated, some homosexual prisoners were recalled to custody to serve out revelation their two-year sentence under Paragraph 175. 7 In 1950, east Germany abolished nazi amendments to paragraph 175, whereas West Germany kept them and even had them confirmed by its Constitutional court. About 100,000 men were implicated in legal proceedings from 1945 to 1969, and about 50,000 were convicted. 4 Some individuals accused under Paragraph 175 committed suicide. In 1969, the government eased Paragraph 175 by providing for an age of consent. 8 The age of consent was lowered to 18 in 1973, and finally, in 1994, the paragraph was repealed and the age of consent lowered to 14, the same that is in force for heterosexual acts. 8 East Germany had already reformed its more lenient version of the paragraph in 1968, and repealed it in 1988.

two body paragraph essay

decided to repeal Paragraph 175 with the votes of the social Democrats, the. Communist Party (KPD) and the, german Democratic Party (ddp however, the rise of the nazi party prevented the implementation of the repeal. 2 Although modified at various times, the paragraph remained part of German law until 1994. 2 In 1935, the nazis broadened the law so that the courts could pursue any "lewd act" whatsoever, even one involving no physical contact, such as masturbating next to each other. 4 Convictions multiplied by a factor of ten to over 8,000 per year by 1937. 5 Furthermore, the gestapo could transport suspected offenders to concentration camps without any legal justification at all (even if they had been acquitted or already served their sentence in jail). Thus, over 10,000 homosexual men were forced into concentration camps, where they were identified by the pink triangle. The majority of them died there. 6 While the nazi persecution of homosexuals is reasonably well known today, far less attention has been given to the continuation of this persecution in post-war Germany.

It was amended several times. Nazis broadened the law in 1935; in the prosecutions that followed, thousands died in concentration camps as a widespread social persecution of homosexuals took place. Contents, historical overview edit, paragraph 175 was adopted in 1871, shortly after Germany was unified. Beginning in the 1890s, sexual listing reformers fought against the "disgraceful paragraph 1 and soon won the support. August Bebel, head of the, social Democratic Party (SPD). However, a petition in the. Reichstag to abolish Paragraph 175 foundered in 1898.

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For the film, paragraph 175, see, paragraph 175 (film). Paragraph 175 (known formally as 175 StGB ; also known as, section 175. English ) was a provision of the. German Criminal Code from to It made homosexual acts between males a crime, and in early revisions the provision also criminalized bestiality as well as forms of prostitution and underage sexual mini abuse. All in all, around 140,000 men were convicted under the law. The statute drew legal influence from previous measures, including those undertaken by the. Holy roman Empire and, prussian states.


Two body paragraph essay
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