Bush commented, "India is a great example of democracy. It is very devout, has diverse religious heads, but everyone is comfortable about their religion. The world needs India". 53 Fareed zakaria, in his book the post-American World, described george. Bush as "being the most pro-Indian president in American history." 54 Similar sentiments are echoed by rejaul Karim Laskar, a scholar of Indian foreign policy and ideologue of India's Congress Party - the largest constituent of the upa. According to laskar, the upa rule has seen a "transformation in bilateral ties with the us as a result of which the relations now covers "a wide range of issues, including high technology, space, education, agriculture, trade, clean energy, counter-terrorism, etc". 55 After the december 2004 tsunami, the us and Indian navies cooperated in search and rescue operations and in the reconstruction of affected areas. Since 2004, washington and New Delhi have been pursuing a "strategic partnership" that is based on shared values and generally convergent geopolitical interests.
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India, a dominant actor in its region, and the home of more than one billion citizens, is now often characterised as a nascent Great Power and an "indispensable partner" of the us, one that many analysts view as a potential counterweight to the growing clout. In March 2000,. President Bill Clinton visited India, undertaking bilateral and economic discussions with Prime minister Vajpayee. During the visit, the Indo-us science technology forum was hours established. 48 over the course of improved diplomatic relations with the bush Administration, India agreed to allow close international monitoring of its nuclear weapons development, although it has refused to give up its current nuclear arsenal. 49 In 2004, the us decided to grant Major non-nato ally (mnna) status to pakistan. The us extended the mnna strategic working relationship to India but the offer was turned down. 50 51 After the september 11 attacks against the us in 2001, President george. Bush collaborated closely with India in controlling and policing the strategically critical Indian Ocean sea lanes from the suez canal to singapore. Upa i ii governments (20042014) village edit during the tenure of the george. Bush administration, relations between India and the United States were seen to have blossomed, primarily over common concerns regarding growing Islamic extremism, energy security, and climate change.
The United States strongly condemned this testing, promised sanctions, and voted in favour of a united Nations Security council Resolution condemning the margaret tests. President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on India, including cutting off all military and economic aid, freezing loans by American banks to state-owned Indian companies, prohibiting loans to the Indian government for all except food purchases, prohibiting American aerospace technology and uranium exports to India. 47 However, these sanctions proved ineffective - india was experiencing a strong economic rise, and its trade with the us only constituted a small portion of its gdp. Only japan joined the us in imposing direct sanctions, while most other nations continued to trade with India. The sanctions were soon lifted. Afterward, the Clinton administration and Prime minister Vajpayee exchanged representatives to help rebuild relations. India emerged in the 21st century as increasingly vital to core us foreign policy interests.
Later in 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test, Smiling Buddha, which was opposed by the us, however it also concluded that the test did not violate any agreement and proceeded with a june 1974 shipment of enriched uranium for the tarapur reactor. 42 43 In the late 1970s, with the anti-soviet Janata party leader Morarji desai becoming the Prime minister, India improved its relations with the us, now led by jimmy carter, despite the latter signing an order in 1978 barring nuclear material from being exported. 44 Despite the return of Indira gandhi to power in 1980, the relations between the two countries continued to improve gradually, although India did not support the United father's States in its role in the soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan. The reagan Administration provided limited assistance to India. India sounded out Washington on the purchase of a range of us defence technology, including F-5 aircraft, super computers, night vision goggles and radars. In 1984 Washington approved the supply of selected technology to India including gas turbines for naval frigates and engines for prototypes for Indias light combat aircraft. There were also unpublicised transfers of technology, including the engagement of a us company, continental Electronics, presentation to design and build a new vlf communications station at Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, which was commissioned in the late 1980s. 45 However, it was not until the late 1990s that there was a significant effort by both countries to improve relations with each other. 46 nda government (19982004) edit soon after Atal Bihari vajpayee became Indian Prime minister, he authorised nuclear weapons testing at pokhran.
President Nixon at the arrival ceremony for Prime minister Indira gandhi, on the south Lawn of the White house, 1971. Following the assassination of Kennedy in 1963, indo-us relations deteriorated gradually. While kennedy's successor Lyndon Johnson sought to maintain relations with India to counter Communist China, 39 he also sought to strengthen ties with pakistan with the hopes of easing tensions with China and weakening India's growing military buildup as well. 39 Relations then hit an all-time low under the nixon administration in the early 1970s. Richard Nixon shifted away from the neutral stance which his predecessors had taken towards Indo-pakistani hostilities. He established a very close relationship with pakistan, aiding it militarily and economically, as India, now under the leadership of Indira gandhi, was seen as leaning towards the soviet Union. He considered pakistan as a very important ally to counter soviet influence in the Indian subcontinent and establish ties with China, with whom pakistan was very close. 40 The frosty personal relationship between Nixon and Indira further contributed to the poor relationship between the two nations. 41 During the 1971 Indo-pakistani war, the us openly supported pakistan and even deployed its aircraft carrier uss enterprise towards the bay of Bengal, which was seen as a show of force by the us in support of the beleaguered West pakistani forces.
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He was so supportive that the new York times remarked, "It did not seem to matter much whether Nehru had actually requested or been given a guarantee that the us would help India to meet further Chinese communist aggression. What mattered was the obvious strengthening of Indian-American friendship to a point where no such guarantee was necessary." 31 John Kenneth Galbraith (far left), as us ambassador to India, with President John. Kennedy, vice-President Lyndon. Johnson and Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India, 1961 During John. Kennedy 's Presidency essay (196163 India was considered a strategic partner and counterweight to the rise of Communist China. Kennedy said, "Chinese communists have been moving ahead the last 10 years. India has been making some progress, but if India does not succeed with her 450 million people, if she can't make freedom work, then people around the world are going to determine, particularly in the underdeveloped world, that the only way they can develop their.
32 33 The United States Air Force flew in arms, ammunition and clothing supplies to the Indian troops and the United States navy even sent the uss kitty hawk aircraft carrier from the pacific Ocean to protect India, only to recall it back before. 34 35 In a may 1963 National Security council meeting, the United States discussed contingency planning that could be implemented in the event of another Chinese attack on India. Defense secretary robert McNamara and General Maxwell taylor advised the president to use nuclear weapons should the Americans intervene in such a situation. Kennedy insisted that Washington defend India as it would any ally, saying, "We should defend India, and therefore we will defend India." 36 37 Kennedy's ambassador to India was the noted liberal economist John Kenneth Galbraith, who was considered close to India. 38 While in India, galbraith helped serial establish one of the first Indian computer science departments, at the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. As an economist, he also presided over the (at the time) largest us foreign aid program to any country.
American officials perceived India's policy of non-alignment negatively. Grady told then Indian Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru that the United States did not consider neutrality to be an acceptable position. Grady told the State department in December 1947 that he had informed Nehru "that this is a question that cannot be straddled and that India should get on the democratic side immediately. 26 In 1948, nehru rejected American suggestions for resolving the kashmir crisis via third party mediation. His 1949 tour of the us was "an undiplomatic disaster" that left bad feelings on both sides. 27 India rejected the American advice that it should not recognise the communist conquest of China, but it did back the us when it supported the 1950 United Nations resolution condemning North Korea's aggression in the korean War.
India tried to act as a broker to help end that war, and served as a conduit for diplomatic messages between the us and China. Meanwhile, poor harvests forced India to ask for American aid for its food security, which was given starting in 1950. 28 In the first dozen years of Indian independence (19471959 the us provided.7 billion in aid, including 931 million in food. The soviet Union provided about half as much in monetary terms, however made much larger contributions in kind, taking the form of infrastructural aid, soft loans, technical knowledge transfer, economic planning and skills involved in the areas of steel mills, machine building, hydro-electric power and. 29 In 1961, the us pledged.0 billion in development loans, in addition.3 billion of free food. 30 Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru receiving President Dwight. Eisenhower at Parliament house, before the President's address to a joint session of Parliament, 1959. In 1959, Dwight. Eisenhower was the first us president to visit India to strengthen the staggering ties between the two nations.
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However, in 1942 when the Indian National Congress launched a quit India movement, the British authorities immediately arrested tens of thousands of activists. Meanwhile, india became the main American staging base for aid to China. Churchill threatened to resign if roosevelt pushed too hard, so roosevelt backed down. 23 24 Post-independence (19471997) edit President Harry Truman and Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, with Nehru's sister, madame pandit, waving from their limousine as diary they leave washington National Airport, during Nehru's visit to the United States, 1949. America under the Truman administration leaned towards favouring India in the late 1940s as a consequence of most. Planners seeing India more valuable diplomatically than its neighbour pakistan. 25 However, during the cold War Nehru's policy of neutrality was cringeworthy to many American observers.
In the 1930s and early 1940s the United States gave very strong support to the Indian independence movement in defiance of must the British Empire. 20 21 The first significant immigration from India before 1965 involved sikh farmers going to california in the early 20th century. 22 World War ii edit American GIs at a market in Calcutta (now Kolkata ) in 1945. Everything changed in World War Two, when India became the main base for the American China burma India theater (CBI) in the war against Japan. Tens of thousands of American servicemen arrived, bringing all sorts of advanced technology, and money; they left in 1945. Serious tension erupted over American demands, led by President Franklin. Roosevelt, that India be given independence, a proposition Prime minister Winston Churchill vehemently rejected. For years roosevelt had encouraged Britain's disengagement from India. The American position was based on principled opposition to colonialism, practical concern for the outcome of the war, and the expectation of a large American role in a post-colonial era.
is perceived by Americans as their 6th favorite nation in the world, with 71 of Americans viewing India favorably in 2015. 13 A 2017 poll by gallup found that 74 of Americans viewed India favorably. 14 In the year 2017 bilateral trade (in both goods services) grew.8 to reach US126.1 billion. India's exports to the us stood at US77.3 billion while usa's exports to India stood at US48.8 billion 15 Contents History edit British Raj edit The relationships between India in the days of the British Raj and the us were thin. 16 Swami vivekananda promoted Yoga and Vedanta in America at the world's Parliament of Religions in Chicago, during the world's fair in 1893. Mark Twain visited India in 1896 17 and described it in his travelogue following the Equator with both revulsion and attraction before concluding that India was the only foreign land he dreamed about or longed to see again. 18 Regarding India, americans learned more from English writer Rudyard Kipling. 19 Mahatma gandhi had an important influence on the philosophy of non-violence promoted by martin Luther King,.
Indo-pakistani war of 1971 affected relations till the dissolution of the soviet Union in 1991. In the 1990s, Indian foreign policy adapted to the unipolar world and developed closer ties with the United States. In the 21st century, indian foreign policy has sought to leverage India's strategic autonomy in order to safeguard sovereign rights and promote national interests within a business multi-polar world. 2 3 4, under Presidents Bush and Obama, the United States has demonstrated accommodation to India's core national interests and acknowledged outstanding concerns. 5, a unique feature of this relationship is that the United States is the world's oldest Democracy, while India is the world's largest (by population) Democracy. 6, increase in bilateral trade investment, cooperation on global security matters, inclusion of India in decision-making on matters of global governance (. United Nations Security council upgraded representation in trade investment forums (. World Bank, imf, apec admission into multilateral export control regimes ( Nuclear Suppliers Group, mtcr, wassenaar Arrangement, australia group ) and joint-manufacturing through technology sharing arrangements have become key milestones and a measure of speed and advancement on the path to closer us-india relations.
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IndiaUnited States relations (or, indo-American relations ) refers to the international relations that exist between the, republic of India and the, united States of America. Prominent leaders of India's freedom movement had friendly relations with the United States of America which continued well after independence from Great Britain in 1947. In 1954, United States of America made pakistan a central Treaty Organization (. India cultivated strategic and military relations with the. Soviet Union to counter, pakistanUnited States relations. 1, in 1961, India became a founding member of the. Non-Aligned movement to avoid involvement in the cold War power-play between the United States and the soviet Union. The nixon administration's support for pakistan during the.