What are the social and political reasons for this? By examining the indigenous writing systems of Africa, we can appreciate the extreme diversity of cultures and history in Africa and take off the glasses of colonialism. Ultimately, many writing systems were created to preserve the language and culture of a people, so that the language sees long-term survival. In the map below, the systems highlighted in blue will be examined in detail. This is not an exhaustive analysis of every system on the continent. The systems were chosen to represent different orthographies, languages, and popularity. Ge'ez, perhaps the most well-known, and most widely used native african script is geez.
Writing systems of Africa - wikipedia
Any other writing system can be traced back to these as its origin, or is inspired by their function and form. Africa has incredible linguistic diversity. The most dominant language groups are the niger-Congo (including Bantu afroasiatic (Berber and Semitic languages and Nilo-saharan. As a result of colonialism, most of the languages use the latin book alphabet in their writing. Arabic is prevalent in North being Africa. Some languages, however, do not use latin or Arabic, and have their own system of writing. The questions I will answer are: What are the current methods to write languages in Africa? Which of these are ancient inventions, and which are modern creations? Why is there such limited use of indigenous scripts? Why is Latin writing most preferred?
A writing system a language. And while in Koreans case, you can get the hang of the former over your morning coffee, actually learning the languages grammar will be slightly more devilish. As ever with language learning, the difficulty of one area is compensated for by some other module being simpler. So for the time being, communicating efficiently with partners in the world's 11th biggest economy by gdp will probably still require expert Korean translators - but now you can recognise the cool history behind what they're writing for you. Read more, a korean Translation Wins the man booker International Prize. Matthew dea, linguistics 1, uc davis, winter 2017. A writing system is a harmonic blend of technology and beauty. At its very core, scripts barbing are a visual depiction of language, which allows people to transfer and preserve information. Linguists have discovered that there have been only four independent creations of written language: in Egypt, Iraq/Iran, China, and Mesoamerica.
Its all rather neat. Apart from the consonant set, the remaining symbols are vowel markers, which are composed of just three elements; a horizontal line representing the flat Earth, the essence of yin; a point representing the sun, the essence of yang; and a vertical line which represents. A few combinations of these three elements account for all the vowel permutations possible in Korean. As mentioned above, it is an alphabet that is arranged in sequential syllables; so the syllable han might look like a standalone character, it is actually composed of three letters: h, a, and. The syllabic blocks of Hangul used to be written vertically, copying the prestige style of Chinese script, but now is written left-to-right and even with western punctuation. In the interests of brevity, there is even a comic that claims to be able to teach you korean in 15 minutes but even that might be generous, once you get into the swing of things. This fascinating script has had a tangible positive effect on social life beyond plain pride the literacy rate across the korean peninsula is exceptionally high close to 100. For comparison, estimates about literacy rates in the usa suggest that the figure there is around. There is, in all this, one important caveat.
Writing system - wikipedia
The hanja-based compromise wasnt just wildly inefficient it was also at the root of severe and worsening social divisions. The only way to learn this desk complex system was with years of expensive education, which meant that in practice literacy became the reserve of the wealthiest in society. Read more, the history of the korean Language. Superscript, then, in 1446 came the official proclamation by sejong: Saddened by this widespread illiteracy, i have developed 28 new letters. It is my wish that people learn these letters easily and that they be convenient for daily use. Sejongs main goal was to make a system that was easy to learn. Hangul is one of the worlds few featural alphabets, meaning that there is an iconic relationship between the symbol and the sound.
In other words, the consonant symbols are based on diagrams favourite of the mouths position when they are pronounced. (Some other, er, prominent featural alphabets include pitman Shorthand, the Shavian alphabet, and Tengwar, one. R.r tolkiens invented scripts. Its quite a neat idea that is surprisingly rare in the world.). The t symbol is designed to look like the tongue touching the front of the mouth, which is precisely how its done. And so on and so forth.
A wise man can acquaint himself with hangul before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn it in the space of ten days. Before 1446, the korean peninsula did not have their own system of transcribing their native language. As an unavoidable fact of its geography, the korean Peninsula has always had close cultural links to China, whose own language and writing system was considered a model of prestige and erudition across the region. As a result, the korean aristocracy had adopted the traditional Chinese hanja characters. Now, a language borrowing the writing system of another one is a rather mundane occurrence; English writing is a modification of Roman script, which is a modification of the Greek system, which in turn is descended from the Phoenician alphabet.
But it turns out that different writing systems are not all equally well equipped to capture the full range of a languages grammar. A character system works relatively well for Chinese, because it is an analytic language, meaning that words tend to be very small and atomized, so a one-to-one relationship with an image can be established. Efforts to find a functional Romanization for Chinese have stumbled partially because Chinese has untold homophones, which can be distinguished by graphical characters, but less easily with phonemic symbols. Hanja was, by the way, the most abysmal compromise possible for a language like korean, which in one very important way is the diametric opposite of Chinese. Where Chinese is analytic, korean is agglutinative, meaning that new words are formed by gluing new elements onto old ones as prefixes and suffixes, and in turn that words can vary massively in length, often being very long. Getting a character system to represent these many complex variations is a bit like enlisting lionel Messi to regulate an entire countrys tax code his skills just lie elsewhere. In 1442 King Sejong lamented that using Hanja for Korean was like using a square handle in a round hole.
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Read more: Language wars: What does the Ascent of Mandarin mean for Cantonese? But in fact we only have to travel east to one of Chinas (fourteen) land borders to find a language that has embraced an unequivocally excellent system. Korean, the worlds largest language isolate and the official language of both the republic of Korea and the democratic peoples Republic of Korea, uses a system called Hangul in the south and Chosŏngŭl in the north, a system which is so logical, so concise,. It is certainly a source of immense korean pride, and this writing system has the technical distinction of being the only one in the world with two national holidays October 9th in south Korea, and January 15th in the north. Hangul is special on several fronts. Firstly, it is a cross between an alphabet and a syllabary so the symbols transparently reflect the individual sounds in each word, but are also assembled shredder into clear syllabic blocks (neither of which English does with any precision). Unlike any other modern writing system you care to mention, hangul is not a cobbled-together descendent of some previous form. Its unusual history began in the 15th century with a tale of sudden innovation by one visionary statesman king Sejong the Great, who is credited with masterminding the design of this bespoke system. Although the single origin theory is disputed by some, sejong certainly had many things to say about Hangul, and he extolled its key virtue of unrivalled simplicity.
Alphabetic writing systems, such as the roman one we use, are nominally based on a phonemic relationship between the symbol and the sound they represent. However, while pronunciations of words can change quite rapidly even between generations, spellings remain very conservative. This simultaneous mix of flux and stasis means that in a very short time, the previously shallow or one-to-one relationship between symbol and sound can become wildly warped. A logographic Labour of love, and yet, were still nowhere near the bottom of the pile for maddeningly complex writing systems. Just think of the kind of logographic system used in China, where each words meaning is linked to its own character (which offers no information on sound structure at all.) The key problem this entails is one of memorization conservative estimates train of the number. And being able to read a chinese newspaper at a basic level requires knowledge of just 3,000. Which is fine but still a massive mnemonic burden in its own right, compared to the 26 symbols we memorise and combine.
cv, references, letters of complaint, recipes, diaries, log-books, dictation, note-taking, reproductions. A frequent format of teaching to write is an essay. There are the following types of essays for teaching: description of an object, a process or an event, comparison of views, processes or events for similarities, contrast of views, processes or events for differences, discussion of a problem, evaluation of circumstances, propositions or consequences, commenting. Among others the students can use the following format of writing an essay: Topic introduction, topic development, topic restatement, date: ; view: 475. Thought youd been Through Enough Spelling Lessons? It is one of the more common complaints of schoolchildren. English spelling is a senseless quagmire of silent letters and inconsistent relationships while those who studied French at school will tend to be unimpressed by claims that all that is not clear is not French (attributed to Antoine de rivarol.). Lets face it while such languages can boast centuries of glorious literary history and cultural achievement, the passage of those centuries has taken its toll on the logicality of our written languages.
Depending on the type of writing, the writer concentrates either on the subject matter of the written piece, or on the reader, or on ones own feelings and thoughts. The triangle of the subject matter, writer and reader is shown below. Writing can assignment be done with the purpose of description, narration, exposition, persuasion and reasoning. Description presents typical features of a living being, an object or an abstract image to make it recognizable. Narration tells of events in succession. Persuasion makes people change their behavior or train of thought. Reasoning invites the reader to follow the logic of the author and to co-operate in producing ideas. Teaching to write is inseparable from teaching a text format,.
The world's writing systems (Kniha, 1996) WorldCat
Writing is a communicative skill to send, store and retrieve messages with the help of first written symbols. History of writing is very long. Writing originated in Mesopotamia and Egypt, pre-columbian America, possibly in India. The earliest evidence of writing is cuneiform script from Mesopotamia at 3500. Recent findings prove that "trident-shaped" markings on pottery existed in pakistan in 5500. There were six early systems of visual graphic language representations that contributed to the development of writing systems: ritualistic markings found in caves, tallying devices to keep count, property markings indicating owners, tokens and totems as symbols of clans, mnemonic devices to keep memory. Modern writing systems are different and they include graphic representations of morphemes and words (Chinese graphic representations of syllables (Hebrew alphabetic representations of phonemes (English, russian etc). Writing can be expressive, poetic, informative and persuasive.