57 New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war cbd buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of facadism. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided. To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers. 58 In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner city population. The bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment.
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The melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the australian economic depression of homework the 1890s and the australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with virtually no new construction until the late 1890s. 50 51 de facto capital of Australia edit further information: Federation of Australia at the time of Australia's federation on, melbourne became the seat of government of the federation. The first federal parliament was convened on in the royal Exhibition building, subsequently moving to the victorian Parliament house where it was located until 1927, when it was moved to canberra. The governor-General of Australia resided at government house in Melbourne until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century. 52 Post-war period edit In the immediate years after World War ii, melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to australia, primarily from southern Europe and the mediterranean. 53 While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air cafe cultures, 54 the city centre was seen by many as stale—the dreary domain of office workers—something expressed by john Brack in his famous painting Collins., 5 pm (1955). 55 ici house, a symbol of progress and modernity in post-war Melbourne height limits in the melbourne cbd were lifted in 1958, after the construction of ici house, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified, served by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre. 56 The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the cbd and St Kilda road which significantly modernised the city.
44 In 1885 the first line of the melbourne cable tramway system was built, becoming one of the world's most extensive systems by 1890. During a visit in 1885 English journalist george augustus Henry sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne which stuck long into the twentieth century and is still used today by melburnians. 45 Growing building activity culminated in a "land boom" which, in 1888, reached a peak of speculative development fuelled by consumer confidence and escalating land value. 46 As a result of the boom, large commercial buildings, coffee palaces, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city. 46 The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings; 47 most notably the apa building, amongst the world's tallest commercial buildings upon completion in 1889. 46 This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network. 48 In 1888, the Exhibition building hosted a second event even larger than the first, the melbourne centennial Exhibition, spurring construction of numerous hotels including the 500 room Federal Hotel, the palace hotel in bourke street (both since demolished and the doubling in size. A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in the early 1890s with a severe depression of the city's economy, sending the local finance and property industries into a period of chaos 46 49 during which 16 small "land banks" and building.
Construction started on further major public buildings in the 1860s and resumes 1870s, such as the supreme court, government house, and the queen Victoria supermarket market. The central city filled up with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Large banks and hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within the blocks. The Aboriginal population continued to decline, with an estimated 80 total decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases (particularly smallpox 24 frontier violence and dispossession of their lands. Land boom and bust edit The decade of the 1880s was one of extraordinary growth, when consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in the price of land, led to an enormous amount of construction. This 'land boom' was followed by a severe economic crash in the early 1890s which lasted until the end of the century. During the boom, melbourne had reputedly become the richest city in the world, 15 and the largest after London in the British Empire. Citation needed The decade began with the melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, held in the large purpose-built Exhibition building. In 1880 a telephone exchange was established and in the same year the foundations of St paul's, were laid; in 1881 electric light was installed in the eastern Market, and in the following year a generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was.
in the 1850s and 1860s. These areas rapidly filled with the ubiquitous terrace houses, as well as with detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads developed as shopping streets. Melbourne quickly became a major finance centre, home to several banks, the royal Mint, and (in 1861) Australia's first stock exchange. 43 In 1855 the melbourne Cricket Club secured possession of its now famous ground, the mcg. Members of the melbourne football Club codified Australian football in 1859, and Yarra rowing clubs and "regattas" became popular about the same time. In 1861 the city hosted the first Melbourne cup race. In 1864 Melbourne acquired its first public monument—the burke and Wills statue. With the gold rush largely over by 1860, melbourne continued to grow on the back of continuing gold-mining, as the major port for exporting the agricultural products of Victoria (especially wool) and with a developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs. An extensive radial railway network spread into the countryside from the late 1850s.
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The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 led to a gold rush, and Melbourne, which served as the major port and provided most services for the region, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the city's population had increased from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. 39 Exponential growth ensued, and by 1865 Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city. 40 An influx of intercolonial and overseas migrants, summary particularly Irish, german and Chinese, saw the establishment of slums, including a temporary "tent city" on the southern banks of the yarra. In 1851, Chinese migrants founded Chinatown, which remains the longest continuously-occupied Chinese settlement outside Asia. 41 In the aftermath of the 1854 Eureka rebellion, mass public-support for the plight of the miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture, manufacturing and other local industries.
The various nationalities which? involved in the rebellion give some indication of immigration flows at the time. 42 With the wealth brought in from the gold rush and the subsequent need for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon began. The 1850s and 1860s saw the commencement of Parliament house, the Treasury building, the Old Melbourne gaol, victoria barracks, the State library, university of Melbourne, general Post Office, customs house, the melbourne town Hall, st Patrick's cathedral, though many remained uncompleted for decades, with some. The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern, cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the central city, was largely established by whom?
Initially the settlement had the native name dootigala. 30 31 Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by the new south Wales governor (who at the time governed all of eastern mainland Australia with compensation paid to members of the association. 26 In 1836, governor bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the port Phillip District of New south Wales, and commissioned the first plan for the city, the hoddle Grid, in 1837. 32 The settlement was named Batmania after Batman. However, later that year the settlement was named "Melbourne" after the British Prime minister, william Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne hall in the market town of Melbourne, derbyshire. On the settlement's general post office officially opened with that name.
1842 Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of their land by european settlers. 34 by january 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne. 35 The British Colonial Office appointed five aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters to take possession of Aboriginal lands. 36 by 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. 37 Letters patent of queen Victoria, issued on, declared Melbourne a city. 14 On the port Phillip District became the separate colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital. 38 Victorian gold rush edit further information: Victorian gold rush "Canvas Town south Melbourne in the 1850s depicting temporary accommodation for the thousands who poured into melbourne each week during the gold rush.
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26 27 The first British settlement in Victoria was established by colonel david Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan bay, near present-day sorrento, but this settlement was relocated to what reviews is now Hobart, tasmania, in February 1804, due to a perceived lack of business resources. It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. 28 In may and June 1835, the area which is now central and northern Melbourne was explored by john Batman, a leading member of the port Phillip Association in Van diemen's Land (now known as Tasmania who claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000. 26 27 Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the yarra river, declaring that "this will be the place for a village". 29 Batman then returned to launceston in Tasmania. In early august 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe fawkner, left launceston on the ship Enterprize. Fawkner was forced to disembark at georgetown, tasmania, because of outstanding debts. The remainder of the party continued and arrived at the mouth of the yarra river on On the party disembarked and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived on 2 September 1835 and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement.
The port of Melbourne is Australia's busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo. 21 Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street station, and the main regional train and coach terminus is southern Cross station. Melbourne is also home to australia's most extensive freeway network and has the world's largest urban tram network. 22 Contents History edit further information: History of Melbourne see also: Timeline of Melbourne history and History of Victoria early history and foundation edit further information: foundation of Melbourne melbourne landing, 1840; watercolour. Liardet (1840) Before the arrival of European settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. 23 At the time of European settlement, it animation was inhabited by under 2000 24 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes : the wurundjeri, boonwurrung and Wathaurong. 25 The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water.
16 Additionally, it was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Melbourne rates highly in education, entertainment, health care, research and development, tourism and sport, 17 making it the world's most liveable city —for the seventh year in a row in 2017, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. 18 It is a leading financial centre in the Asia-pacific region, and ranks among the top 15 cities in the world in the Global Financial Centres Index. 19 Referred to as Australia's "cultural capital 20 it is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, australian rules football, the australian film and television industries, and Australian contemporary dance. It is recognised as a unesco city of Literature and a major centre for street art, music and theatre. It is home to many of Australia's largest and oldest cultural institutions such as the melbourne Cricket Ground, the national Gallery of Victoria, the State library of Victoria and the unesco world Heritage -listed royal Exhibition building. The main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne airport (also called Tullamarine airport the second busiest in Australia.
Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the. Dandenong and, macedon mountain ranges, mornington Peninsula and, yarra valley. Melbourne consists of 31 municipalities. 10 It has a population of 4,725,3 1, approximately 19 of the national population, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. 11 12 founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van diemen's Land on, in summary what was then the colony of New south Wales, 13 it was incorporated as a crown settlement in 1837. 13 It was named "Melbourne" by the governor of New south Wales, sir Richard bourke, in honour of the British Prime minister of the day, william Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. 13 It was officially declared a city by queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, 14 after which it became the capital of the newly founded colony of Victoria in 1851.
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This article is about the book australian city. For the city centre or central business district (cbd see. For the local government area within which the melbourne city centre is situated, see. For other uses, see, melbourne (disambiguation). City in Victoria, australia, melbourne ( /mɛlbərn/ ( listen ). Mel-bərn ) 8 9 is the state capital of, victoria and the second-most populous city in, australia and, oceania. 1, the name "Melbourne" covers an urban agglomeration spanning 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi 2 which comprises the broader metropolitan area, as well as being the common name for its city centre. The metropolis is located on the large natural bay.