On violence edit Arendt's essay, on violence, distinguishes between violence and power. She maintains that, although theorists of both the left and right regard violence as an extreme manifestation of power, the two concepts are, in fact, antithetical. Power comes from the collective will and does not need violence to achieve any of its goals, since voluntary compliance takes its place. As governments start losing their legitimacy, violence becomes an artificial means toward the same end and is, therefore, found only in the absence of power. Bureaucracies then become the ideal birthplaces of violence since they are defined as the "rule by no one" against whom to argue and, therefore, recreate the missing links with the people they rule over. The life of the mind edit her posthumous book, the life of the mind (1978, edited by mary McCarthy remained incomplete.
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The controversy began by calling attention to the conduct of the jewish people during the years of the final Solution, thus following up the question, first raised by the Israeli prosecutor, of whether the jews could or should have defended themselves. I had dismissed that question as silly and cruel, since it testified to a fatal ignorance of the conditions at the time. It has now been discussed to exhaustion, and the most ebp amazing conclusions have been drawn. The well-known historico-sociological construct of "ghetto mentality" has been repeatedly dragged in to explain behavior which was not at all confined to the jewish people and which therefore cannot be explained by specifically jewish factors This was the unexpected conclusion certain reviewers chose to draw. 33 Arendt ended the book by writing: Just as you eichmann supported and carried out a policy of not wanting to share the earth with the jewish people and the people of a number of other nations—as though you and your superiors had any right. This is the reason, and the only reason, you must hang. On revolution (1963) edit Arendt's book on revolution presents a comparison of two of the main revolutions of the eighteenth century, the American and French revolutions. She goes against a common view of both Marxist and leftist views when she argues that France, while well studied and often emulated, was a disaster and that the largely ignored American revolution was a success. The turning point in the French revolution occurred when the leaders rejected their goals of freedom in order to focus on compassion for the masses. In the United States, the founders never betray the goal of Constitutio libertatis. Arendt believes the revolutionary spirit of those men had been lost, however, and advocates a "council system" as an appropriate institution to regain that spirit.
She also was critical of the way that some jewish leaders, notably. Rumkowski, acted during the holocaust. This caused a considerable controversy and even animosity toward Arendt in the jewish community. Her friend Gershom Scholem, a major scholar of Jewish mysticism, broke off relations with her. Arendt was criticized by many jewish public figures, who charged her with coldness and lack of sympathy summary for the victims of the holocaust. Because of this lingering criticism neither this book nor any of her other works were translated into hebrew, until 1999. 32 This controversy was answered by hannah Arendt in the book's Postscript.
Arendt argues that, while human life always evolves within societies, the social part of human nature, political life, has been intentionally realized in only a few societies as a space for individuals to achieve freedom. Conceptual categories, which attempt to bridge the gap between ontological and sociological structures, are sharply delineated. While Arendt relegates labor and work to the realm of the social, she favors the human condition of action as that which is both existential and aesthetic. 8 Men in Dark times edit her collection of essays, men in Dark times, presents intellectual biographies of some creative and moral figures of the twentieth century, such as Walter Benjamin, karl Jaspers, rosa luxemburg, hermann Broch, pope john xxiii, and Isak dinesen. Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil edit Adolf Eichmann on trial main article: Eichmann in Jerusalem In her reporting of the 1961 Adolf Eichmann trial for The new Yorker, which evolved into eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality. She examined the question of whether evil is radical or simply a function of thoughtlessness, a tendency of ordinary people to obey orders and conform to mass opinion without a critical first evaluation of the consequences of their actions. She was sharply critical of the way the trial was conducted in Israel.
She was buried alongside her husband, heinrich Blücher, at Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, new York. The Origins of Totalitarianism edit main article: The Origins of Totalitarianism Arendt's first major book, the Origins of Totalitarianism (1951 examined the roots of Communism and nazism. In it, Arendt argues that totalitarianism was a "novel form of government different from other forms of tyranny in that it applied terror to subjugate mass populations rather than just political adversaries. 31 The book was opposed by some on the left on the grounds that it presented the two movements as equally tyrannical. She further contends that Jewry was not the operative factor in the holocaust, but merely a convenient proxy. Totalitarianism in Germany was, in the end, about terror and consistency, not eradicating Jews only. The human Condition edit main article: The human Condition In what is arguably her most influential work, the human Condition (1958 Arendt differentiates political and social concepts, labor and work, and various forms of actions; she then explores the implications of those distinctions. Her theory of political action, corresponding to the existence of a public realm, is extensively developed in this work.
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Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, galicians, but still Europeans. Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them. They would obey any order. And outside the doors, the oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half-Asiatic country. 13 Although Arendt remained a zionist both during and after World War ii, she made it clear that she favored the creation of a jewish-Arab federated state in Palestine, rather than a purely jewish state.
She believed that this new was a way to address Jewish statelessness and to avoid the pitfalls of nationalism. 25 26 She was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1962 and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1964. 27 28 In 1974, Arendt was instrumental in the creation of Structured Liberal Education (SLE) at Stanford University. She wrote a letter to the president of Stanford to persuade the university to enact Mark mancall 's vision of a residentially-based humanities program. 29 30 death edit Arendt died in New York city on 4 December 1975, at the age of 69, of a heart attack.
Beginning in 1944, she was the director of research for the commission of European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, and in that capacity traveled to europe after the war. 16 18 Post-war edit during World War ii, arendt worked for youth Aliyah, a zionist organization that saved thousands of children from the holocaust and settled them in the British Mandate of Palestine. 19 20 She became a close friend of Karl Jaspers and his wife, developing a deep intellectual friendship with him. 21 She began corresponding with the American author Mary McCarthy around this time. 22 In 1950, Arendt became a naturalized citizen of the United States. 23 The same year, she started seeing Martin heidegger again, and had what the American writer Adam Kirsch called a "quasi-romance that lasted for two years, with the man who had previously been her mentor, teacher, and lover.
13 During this time, arendt defended him against critics who noted his enthusiastic membership in the nazi party. She portrayed heidegger as a naïve man swept up by forces beyond his control, and pointed out that heidegger's philosophy had nothing to do with National Socialism. 13 She served as a visiting scholar at the University of Notre dame, university of California, berkeley, princeton University, and Northwestern University. In 1959, she was named the first female lecturer at Princeton. She also taught at the University of Chicago from 1963 to 1967, where she was a member of the committee on Social Thought ; The new School in Manhattan where she taught as a university professor from 1967 until her death in 1975; Yale University. 24 In 1961 while covering the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt wrote to jaspers a letter that Kirsch described as reflecting "pure racism" toward Sephardic Jews from the middle east and Ashkenazi jews from Eastern Europe. She wrote: On top, the judges, the best of German Jewry.
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In 1940, she married the german poet and Marxist philosopher, heinrich Blücher, a founding member of the kpd who had been expelled due to his work in the conciliator faction. In may 1940, after the german Invasion of France, arendt was interned as an "enemy alien" in Camp Gurs, but she managed biography to escape before the germans reached the area. 15 New York edit Arendt left France in 1941 with her husband and her mother, traveling via portugal to the United States. They relied on visas illegally issued by the American diplomat Hiram Bingham, who aided roughly 2,500 Jewish refugees in this way. Varian father's Fry, another American humanitarian, paid for their travel and helped obtain the visas. Upon arriving in New York, arendt became active in the german-Jewish community. From 1941 to 1945, she wrote a column for the german-language jewish newspaper Aufbau.
She wrote, asking him to deny that he was attracted to national Socialism. Heidegger replied that he did not seek to deny the london rumors (which were true and merely assured her that his feelings for her were unchanged. 13 As a jew in nazi germany, arendt was prevented from making a living and discriminated against. She researched antisemitism for some time before being arrested and briefly imprisoned by the gestapo in 1933. 14 Paris edit In 1933, Arendt left Germany for czechoslovakia and then Geneva, where she worked for some time at the league of Nations. Then, in Paris, she befriended her first husband's cousin, the marxist literary critic and philosopher, walter Benjamin. While in France, she worked to help Jewish refugees. In 1937, she was stripped of her German citizenship.
she was born Jewish. 13 Arendt later said of Varnhagen that she was "my very closest woman friend, unfortunately dead a hundred years now." 13 After completing her high school studies in 1924, she enrolled at the University of Marburg, where she spent a year studying philosophy with Martin. According to hans Jonas, her only german-Jewish classmate, in her year at the university, arendt began a long and problematic romantic relationship with heidegger, for which she was later criticized because of his support for the nazi party while he was rector at the University. After a year at Marburg, Arendt spent a semester at Freiburg University, attending the lectures of Edmund Husserl. 8 In 1926 she moved to the University of heidelberg, where in 1929, she completed her dissertation under the existentialist philosopher-psychologist Karl Jaspers. Her thesis was Der liebesbegriff bei augustin: Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation ( de ) On the concept of love in the thought of saint Augustine : Attempt at a philosophical interpretation. In 1929, in Berlin, the year her dissertation was published, she married Günther Stern, later known as Günther Anders. They divorced in 1937. In 1932, Arendt was deeply troubled by reports that heidegger was speaking at National Socialist meetings.
Her works reviews deal with the nature of power and the subjects of politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism. The, hannah Arendt Prize is named in her honor. Contents, early life and education edit, arendt was born into a secular family of German Jews. Linden (now a part of, hanover the daughter of Martha (born Cohn) and paul Arendt. 12, she grew up in, königsberg and Berlin. Arendt's family was thoroughly assimilated and she later remembered: "With us from Germany, the word 'assimilation' received a 'deep' philosophical meaning. You can hardly realize how serious we were about.".
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For the surname, see. For the film, see, hannah Arendt (film). Arendt 9 ( /ɛərənt, ɑrənt/ ; German: aʁənt ; 10 4 December 1975) was a german-born American philosopher and political theorist. Her eighteen books and numerous articles, on topics ranging from totalitarianism to epistemology, had a lasting influence on political theory. 8, arendt is widely considered summary one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. 8, as a jew, Arendt chose to leave nazi germany in 1933, and lived in czechoslovakia, switzerland, and France before escaping to the United States in 1941 via portugal. She became an American citizen in 1950, having been stripped of her German citizenship in 1937.