This group (jokingly designated "The collective included future federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan, a young psychology student named Nathan Blumenthal (later Nathaniel Branden ) and his wife barbara and Barbara's cousin leonard peikoff. Initially the group was an informal gathering of friends who met with Rand on weekends at her apartment to discuss philosophy. She later began allowing them to read the drafts of her new novel, Atlas Shrugged, as the manuscript pages were written. In 1954 Rand's close relationship with the younger Nathaniel Branden turned into a romantic affair, with the consent of their spouses. 68 Atlas Shrugged, published in 1957, was considered Rand's magnum opus. 69 Rand described the theme of the novel as "the role of the mind in man's existence—and, as a corollary, the demonstration of a new moral philosophy: the morality of rational self-interest". 70 It advocates the core tenets of Rand's philosophy of Objectivism and expresses her concept of human achievement. The plot involves a dystopian United States in which the most creative industrialists, scientists, and artists respond to a welfare state government by going on strike and retreating to a mountainous hideaway where they build an independent free economy.
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61 a visit by Isabel Paterson to meet with Rand's California associates led to a final falling out between the two when Paterson made comments, which Rand considered rude, to valued political allies. 62 In 1947, during the second Red Scare, rand testified as a "friendly witness" before the United States house Un-American Activities Committee. Her testimony described the disparity between her personal experiences in the soviet Union and the portrayal of it in the 1944 film Song of Russia. 63 Rand argued that the film grossly misrepresented conditions in the soviet Union, portraying life there as much better and happier than it actually was. 64 She wanted to also criticize the lauded 1946 film The best years of Our lives for what she interpreted as its negative presentation of the business world, but she was not allowed to testify about. 65 When asked after the hearings about her feelings on the effectiveness of the investigations, rand described the process as "futile". 66 After several delays, the film version of The fountainhead was released in 1949. Although it used Rand's screenplay with minimal alterations, she "disliked the movie from beginning to end and complained about its editing, acting, and other elements. 67 Atlas Shrugged and Objectivism edit see also: Atlas Shrugged, objectivism (Ayn Rand), and Objectivist movement Rand's novella Anthem was reprinted in the june 1953 issue of the pulp magazine famous Fantastic Mysteries. In the years following the publication of The fountainhead, rand received numerous jungle letters from readers, some of whom the book profoundly influenced. In 1951 Rand moved from Los Angeles to new York city, where she gathered a group of these admirers around her.
And she returned to hollywood to write the screenplay. Finishing her work on that screenplay, she was hired by producer Hal. Wallis as a screenwriter and script-doctor. Her work for Wallis included the screenplays for the Oscar -nominated love letters and you came Along. 59 Rand also worked on other projects, including a planned nonfiction treatment of her philosophy to be called The moral Basis of Individualism. Although the planned book was never completed, a condensed version was published as an essay titled "The Only path to tomorrow" in the january 1944 edition of reader's Digest magazine. 60 summary Rand extended her involvement with free-market and anti-communist activism while working in Hollywood. She became involved with the motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, a hollywood anti-communist group, and wrote articles on the group's behalf. She also joined the anti-communist American Writers Association.
Rand questioned Paterson about American history and politics long mini into the night during their many meetings and gave paterson ideas for her only non-fiction book, the god of the machine. 52 Rand's first major success as a writer came in 1943 with The fountainhead, a romantic and philosophical novel that she wrote over a period of seven years. 53 The novel centers on an uncompromising young architect named Howard roark and his struggle against what Rand described as "second-handers"—those who attempt to live through others, placing others above themselves. It was rejected by twelve publishers before finally being accepted by the bobbs-Merrill list Company on the insistence of editor Archibald Ogden, who threatened to quit if his employer did not publish. 54 While completing the novel, rand was prescribed the amphetamine benzedrine to fight fatigue. 55 The drug helped her to work long hours to meet her deadline for delivering the novel, but afterwards she was so exhausted that her doctor ordered two weeks' rest. 56 Her use of the drug for approximately three decades may have contributed to what some of her later associates described as volatile mood swings. 57 The fountainhead became a worldwide success, bringing Rand fame and financial security. 58 In 1943, rand sold the rights for a film version to warner Bros.
49 The fountainhead and political activism edit see also: The fountainhead and The fountainhead (film) During the 1940s, rand became politically active. She and her husband worked as full-time volunteers for the 1940 presidential campaign of Republican Wendell Willkie. This work led to rand's first public speaking experiences; she enjoyed fielding sometimes hostile questions from New York city audiences who had viewed pro-willkie newsreels. 50 This activity brought her into contact with other intellectuals sympathetic to free-market capitalism. She became friends with journalist Henry hazlitt and his wife, and hazlitt introduced her to the austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises. Despite her philosophical differences with them, rand strongly endorsed the writings of both men throughout her career, and both of them expressed admiration for her. Mises once referred to rand as "the most courageous man in America a compliment that particularly pleased her because he said "man" instead of "woman". 51 Rand also became friends with libertarian writer Isabel Paterson.
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42 Rand's first published novel, the semi-autobiographical we the living, was published in 1936. Set in soviet Russia, it focused on the struggle between the individual and the state. In a 1959 foreword to the novel, rand stated that we the living "is as near to an autobiography as I will ever write. It is not an autobiography in the literal, but only in the intellectual sense. The plot is invented, the background is not." 43 Initial sales were slow and the American publisher let it go out of print, 44 although European editions continued to sell. 45 After the success of her later novels, rand was able to release a revised version in 1959 that has since sold over three million summary copies. 46 In 1942, without Rand's knowledge or permission, the novel was made into a pair of Italian films, noi vivi and Addio, kira.
Rediscovered in the 1960s, these films were re-edited into a new version which was approved by rand and re-released as we the living in 1986. 47 Her novella Anthem was written during a break from the writing of her next major novel, The fountainhead. It presents a vision of a dystopian future world in which totalitarian collectivism has triumphed to such an extent that even the word 'i' has been forgotten and replaced with meaning 'we'. 48 It was published in England in 1938, but Rand initially could not find an American publisher. As with we the living, rand's later success allowed her to get a revised version published in 1946, which has sold more than.5 million copies.
35 While working on The king of Kings, she met an aspiring young actor, Frank o'connor; the two were married on April 15, 1929. She became a permanent American resident in July 1929 and an American citizen on March 3, 1931. 36 taking various jobs during the 1930s to support her writing, she worked for a time as the head of the costume department at rko studios. 37 She made several attempts to bring her parents and sisters to the United States, but they were unable to acquire permission to emigrate. 38 Early fiction edit see also: Night of January 16th, we the living, and Anthem (novella) Rand's first literary success came with the sale of her screenplay red Pawn to Universal Studios in 1932, although it was never produced. 39 This was followed by the courtroom drama night of January 16th, first produced.
Clive in Hollywood in 1934 and then successfully reopened on Broadway in 1935. Each night a jury was selected from members of the audience; based on the jury's vote, one of two different endings would be performed. 40 In 1941, paramount Pictures produced a movie loosely based on the play. Rand did not participate in the production and was highly critical of the result. 41 Ideal is a novel and play written in 1934 which were first published in 2015 by her estate. The heroine is an actress who embodies Randian ideals.
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25 She then studied for a year at the State technicum for Screen Arts in Leningrad. For an presentation assignment she wrote an essay about the polish actress Pola negri, which became her first published work. B Arrival in the United States edit cover of Rand's first published work, a 2,500-word monograph on actress Pola negri published in 1925, rand was granted a visa to visit relatives in Chicago. 31 She departed on January 17, 1926. 32 When she arrived in New York city on February 19, 1926, she was so impressed with the skyline of Manhattan that she cried what she later called "tears golf of splendor". 33 Intent on staying in the United States to become a screenwriter, she lived for a few months with her relatives, one of whom owned a movie theater and allowed her to watch dozens of films for free. She then left for Hollywood, california. 34 In Hollywood, a chance meeting with famed director Cecil. Demille led to work as an extra in his film The king of Kings and a subsequent job as a junior screenwriter.
While in high school, rand decided that she was an atheist and valued reason above any other human virtue. After graduating from high school in the Crimea in June 1921, rand returned with her family to petrograd (as saint Petersburg was renamed at that time where they faced desperate conditions, on occasion nearly starving. 16 17 After the russian revolution, universities were opened to women, allowing Rand to be in the first group of women to enroll at Petrograd State University. 18 At the age of 16, she began her studies in the department of social pedagogy, majoring in history. 19 At the university she was introduced to the writings of Aristotle and Plato, 20 who would be her greatest influence and counter-influence, respectively. 21 She also studied the philosophical works of Friedrich nietzsche. 22 Able to read French, german and Russian, rand also discovered the writers fyodor Dostoevsky, victor Hugo, edmond Rostand, and Friedrich Schiller, who became her perennial favorites. 23 Along with many other bourgeois students, rand was purged from the university shortly before graduating. After complaints from a group of visiting foreign scientists, however, many of the purged students were allowed to complete their work and graduate, 24 which summary Rand did in October 1924.
who owned a pharmacy and the building in which it was located. 13 Rand later said she found school unchallenging and began writing screenplays at the age of eight and novels at the age of ten. 14 At the prestigious Stoiunina gymnasium, her closest friend was Vladimir Nabokov 's younger sister, Olga. The two girls shared an intense interest in politics and would engage in debates at the nabokov mansion : while nabokova defended constitutional monarchy, rand supported republican ideals. 15 She was twelve at the time of the february revolution of 1917, during which she favored Alexander Kerensky over Tsar Nicholas. The subsequent October revolution and the rule of the bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin disrupted the life the family had previously enjoyed. Her father's business was confiscated, and the family fled to the Crimean Peninsula, which was initially under control of the White Army during the russian civil War.
Afterward, she turned to non-fiction to promote her philosophy, publishing her own periodicals and releasing several collections of essays until her death in 1982. Rand advocated reason as write the only means of acquiring knowledge and rejected faith and religion. She supported rational and ethical egoism and rejected altruism. In politics, she condemned the initiation of force as immoral 3 and opposed collectivism and statism as well as anarchism, instead supporting laissez-faire capitalism, which she defined as the system based on recognizing individual rights, including property rights. 4 In art, rand promoted romantic realism. She was sharply critical of most philosophers and philosophical traditions known to her, except for Aristotle, thomas Aquinas and classical liberals. 5 Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews 6 and academia generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades. 7 8 9 The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings.
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Ayn Rand ( /aɪn/ ; 1 born, alisa zinovyevna rosenbaum ; a, february 2,. January march 6, 1982) was a jewish-American novelist, playwright, screenwriter and philosopher. 2, she is known for her two best-selling novels, The fountainhead and, atlas Shrugged, and for developing a philosophical system she named. Educated in Russia, she moved to the United States in 1926. She had a play produced. Broadway in 19After two early novels that were initially unsuccessful, she achieved fame with her 1943 novel, The fountainhead. In 1957, rand published guaranteed her best-known work, the novel.