The Oxford English Dictionary refers to "Messrs. The Great Unwashed " in Lytton's paul Clifford (1830 as the earliest instance. Bulwer-Lytton is also credited with the appellation for the germans "Das Volk der Dichter und Denker", that is, the people of poets and thinkers. Theosophy edit Also the writers of theosophy were influenced by his work. Annie besant and especially helena Blavatsky incorporated his thoughts and ideas from particularly The last days of Pompeii, vril, the power of the coming Race and Zanoni in her own books. 38 39 Contest edit further information: Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest Bulwer-Lytton's name lives on in the annual Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest, in which contestants think up terrible openings for imaginary novels, inspired by the first line of his 1830 novel paul Clifford : 40 It was.
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33 His play money (1840) was first produced at the Theatre royal, haymarket, nutrition london, on 8 December 1840. The first American production was at the Old Park Theater in New York on 1 February 1841. Subsequent productions include the Prince of Wales's Theatre 's in 1872 and it was also the inaugural play at the new California theatre in San Francisco in 1869. 34 Among Bulwer-Lytton's lesser-known contributions to literature was that he convinced Charles Dickens to revise the ending of Great Expectations to make it more palatable to the reading public, as in the original version of the novel, pip and Estella do not get together. 35"tions edit bulwer-Lytton's most famous"tion, " The pen is mightier than the sword is from his play richelieu where it appears in the line: beneath the rule of men entirely great, the pen is mightier than the sword In addition, he popularized the. 36 he is also credited with "the great unwashed". He used this rather disparaging term in his 1830 novel paul Clifford : he is certainly a man who bathes and "lives cleanly (two especial charges preferred against him by messrs. The Great Unwashed ). 37 The last days of Pompeii has been cited as the first source, but inspection of the original text shows this to be wrong. However, the term "the Unwashed" with the same meaning, appears in The parisians : "He says that Paris has grown so dirty since 4 September, that it is only fit for the feet of the Unwashed." The parisians, though, was not published until 1872, while.
8 The last days of Pompeii was inspired by karl Briullov 's painting, The last day of Pompeii, which Bulwer-Lytton saw in reviews Milan. 27 he also wrote the horror story "The haunted and the haunters" or "The house and the Brain" (1859). 28 Another novel dealing with a supernatural theme was a strange Story (1862 which was an influence on Bram Stoker 's Dracula. 29 Bulwer-Lytton penned many other works, including The coming Race or Vril: The power of the coming Race (1871 which drew heavily on his interest in the occult and contributed to the early growth of the science fiction genre. 30 Its story of a subterranean race waiting to reclaim the surface of the earth is an early science fiction theme. The book popularised the hollow Earth theory and may have inspired nazi mysticism. 31 His term "vril" lent its name to bovril meat extract. 32 Adopted by theosophists and occultists since the 1870s, "vril" would develop into a major esoteric topic, and eventually become closely associated with the ideas of an esoteric neo-nazism after 1945.
8 Its intricate plot and humorous, intimate portrayal of pre-victorian dandyism kept gossips busy trying to associate public figures with characters in the owl book. Pelham resembled Benjamin Disraeli's recent first novel vivian Grey (1827). 8 The character of the villainous Richard Crawford in The disowned, also published in 1828, borrowed much from that of the banker and forger Henry fauntleroy, who was hanged in London in 1824 before a crowd of some 100,000. 26 Bulwer-Lytton admired Disraeli's father, Isaac d'israeli, himself a noted author. They began corresponding in the late 1820s and met for the first time in March 1830, when Isaac d'israeli dined at Bulwer-Lytton's house. (Also present that evening were Charles Pelham Villiers and Alexander Cockburn. The young Villiers was to have a long parliamentary career, while cockburn became lord Chief Justice of England in 1859.) Bulwer-Lytton reached the height of his popularity with the publication of Godolphin (1833). This was followed by The pilgrims of the Rhine (1834 The last days of Pompeii (1834 rienzi, last of the roman Tribunes (1835 8 leila; or, The siege of Granada (1838) and Harold, the last of the saxons (1848).
21 moody was charged to establish British order and to transform the newly established Colony of British Columbia (185866) into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" 22 and "found a second England on the shores of the pacific." 19 Lytton desired to send. 20 The former hbc fort Dallas at Camchin, the confluence of the Thompson and Fraser rivers, was renamed in his honour by governor Sir James douglas in 1858 as Lytton, British Columbia. 25 Literary works edit bulwer-Lytton's literary career began in 1820, with the publication of a book of poems, and spanned much of the 19th century. He wrote in a variety of genres, including historical fiction, mystery, romance, the occult, and science fiction. He financed his extravagant life with a varied and prolific literary output, sometimes publishing anonymously. 8 1849 printing of Pelham with Hablot. Browne ( Phiz ) frontispiece: Pelham's electioneering visit to the rev. Combermere St quintin, who is surprised at dinner with his family. In 1828 Pelham brought him public acclaim and established his reputation as a wit and dandy.
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17 His unfinished history Athens: Its Rise and Fall was published posthumously. Bulwer-Lytton began his career as disorder a follower of Jeremy bentham. In 1831 he was elected member for St ives in Cornwall, after which he was returned for Lincoln in 1832, and sat in Parliament for that city for nine years. He spoke in favour of the reform Bill, and took the leading part in securing the reduction, after vainly essaying the repeal, of the newspaper stamp duties. His influence was perhaps most keenly felt when, on literature the Whigs' dismissal from office in 1834, he issued a pamphlet entitled a letter to a late cabinet Minister on the Crisis. 18 Lord Melbourne, then Prime minister, offered him a lordship of the admiralty, which he declined as likely to interfere with his activity as an author. In 1841, he left Parliament and did not return to politics until 1852, when, having differed from the policy of Lord John Russell over the corn Laws, he stood for Hertfordshire as a conservative.
Lord Lytton held that seat until 1866, when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Lytton of Knebworth in the county of Hertford. In 1858 he entered Lord Derby 's government as Secretary of State for the colonies, thus serving alongside his old friend Disraeli. In the house of Lords he was comparatively inactive. British Columbia edit When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, bulwer-Lytton, who was Secretary of State for the colonies, requested that the war Office recommend a field officer, "a man of good judgement possessing a knowledge of mankind to lead a corps. 19 The war Office chose richard Clement moody : and Lord Lytton, who described moody as his "distinguished friend 20 accepted the nomination, in view of moody's military record, his success as governor of the falkland Islands, and the distinguished record of his father, colonel.
His brothers remained plain "Bulwer". By chance bulwer-Lytton encountered a copy of " Captain Claridge's work on the " Water Cure as practised by Priessnitz, at Graefenberg and "making allowances for certain exaggerations therein pondered the option of travelling to Graefenberg, but preferred to find something closer to home, with. 11 12 After reading a pamphlet by doctor James Wilson, who operated a hydropathic establishment with James Manby gully at Malvern, he stayed there for "some nine or ten weeks after which he "continued the system some seven weeks longer under Doctor weiss, at Petersham. 11 When King Otto of Greece abdicated in 1862, bulwer-Lytton was offered the crown of Greece, which he declined. 14 The English Rosicrucian society, founded in 1867 by robert Wentworth Little, claimed Bulwer-Lytton as their 'Grand Patron but he wrote to the society complaining that he was 'extremely surprised' by their use of the title, as he had 'never sanctioned such'.
15 nevertheless, a number of esoteric groups have continued to claim Bulwer-Lytton as their own, chiefly because some of his writings—such as the 1842 book zanoni —have included Rosicrucian and other esoteric notions. According to the fulham football Club, he once resided in the original Craven Cottage, today the site of their stadium. Bulwer-Lytton had long suffered with a disease of the ear and for the last two or three years of his life he lived in Torquay nursing his health. 16 Following an operation to cure deafness, an abscess formed in his ear and burst; he endured intense pain for a week and died at 2am on just short of his 70th birthday. 16 The cause of death was not clear but it was thought that the infection had affected his brain and caused a fit. 16 Rosina outlived him by nine years. Against his wishes, bulwer-Lytton was honoured with a burial in Westminster Abbey.
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8 This incident was chronicled in her memoir, a blighted Life (1880). 9 10 She continued her attacks upon her husband's character for several years. Bulwer-Lytton in later life The death of Bulwer-Lytton's mother in 1843 greatly saddened him. His own "exhaustion of toil and study paper had been completed by great anxiety and grief and by "about the january of 1844, i was thoroughly shattered". 11 12 In his mother's room at Knebworth house, bulwer-Lytton "had inscribed above the mantelpiece a request that future generations preserve the room as his beloved mother had used." It remains essentially unchanged to this day. 13 On 20 February 1844, in accordance with his mother's will, he changed his surname from 'bulwer' to 'bulwer-Lytton' and assumed the arms of Lytton by royal licence. His widowed mother had done the same in 1811.
5 In the following year he took his ba degree and printed, for private circulation, a small volume of poems, weeds and Wild Flowers. He purchased a commission in the army in 1826, but sold it in 1829 without serving. His Harold, the last of the saxons (1848) was the source for Verdi's opera Aroldo. In August 1827, he married Rosina doyle Wheeler (18021882 a famous Irish beauty, but against his mother's wishes, who textbooks withdrew his allowance, so that he was forced to work for a living. 7 They had two children, lady Emily Elizabeth Bulwer-Lytton (18281848 and (Edward) Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton (18311891) who became governor-General and Viceroy of British India (18761880). His writing and political work strained their marriage, while his infidelity embittered Rosina; 8 in 1833 they separated acrimoniously and in 1836 the separation became legal. 8 Three years later, rosina published Cheveley, or the man of Honour (1839 a near-libellous fiction bitterly satirising her husband's alleged hypocrisy., when her husband was standing as parliamentary candidate for Hertfordshire, she indignantly denounced him at the hustings. He retaliated by threatening her publishers, withholding her allowance, and denying her access to the children. 8 Finally he had her committed to a mental asylum, 8 but after a public outcry, she was released a few weeks later.
on to general William Earle bulwer of heydon Hall and wood Dalling, norfolk and Elizabeth Barbara lytton, daughter of Richard Warburton Lytton of Knebworth, hertfordshire. He had two older brothers, william Earle lytton Bulwer (17991877) and Henry (18011872 later Lord Dalling and Bulwer. When Edward was four, his father died and his mother moved to london. He was a delicate, neurotic child and was discontented at a number of boarding schools. But he was precocious and. Wallington at Baling encouraged him to publish, at the age of fifteen, an immature work, ishmael and Other poems. Citation needed In 1822 he entered Trinity college, cambridge, where he met John Auldjo, but shortly afterwards moved to Trinity hall. In 1825 he won the Chancellor's Gold Medal for English verse.
Richard Clement moody to be the founder of, british Columbia. Bulwer-Lytton was offered the Crown of Greece in 1862, after the abdication. King Otto, but declined. He became baron Lytton of Knebworth in the British peerage in 1862. Bulwer-Lytton was the father of the statesman. Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, who served as, governor-General of India and as British Ambassador to France, and composed poetry under the pseudonym Owen Meredith. Bulwer-Lytton's literary works were highly popular and his bestselling novels earned him a large fortune. He invented the phrases "the great year unwashed "pursuit of the almighty dollar " the pen is mightier than the sword and " dweller on the threshold ". Then came a sharp decline in his literary reputation, so that he is known for little more than the much-parodied opening line ".
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Not to be confused with his son, robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, governor-General of India. For the British gender general, see, edward Bulwer (British Army officer). Edward george earle lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton, pc ( ) was an English novelist, poet, playwright and politician. He served. Whig, mP from 1831 to 1841 and. Conservative, mP from 1851 to 1866. Secretary of State for the colonies from June 18, during which time he selected.