A contemporary of William Langland and a personal friend of Chaucer, gower is remembered primarily for three major works: the mirroir de l'Omme, vox Clamantis, and Confessio amantis, three long poems written in Anglo-norman, latin and Middle English respectively, which are united by common moral. 27 Significant religious works were also created in the 14th century, including those of Julian of Norwich (ca. 1416) and Richard Rolle. Julian's revelations of divine love (about 1393) is believed to be the first published book written by a woman in the English language. 28 A major work from the 15th century is le morte d'Arthur by sir Thomas Malory, which was printed by caxton in 1485. 29 This is a compilation of some French and English Arthurian romances, and was among the earliest books printed in England. It was popular and influential in the later revival of interest in the Arthurian legends.
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25 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th-century middle English alliterative romance. It is one of essay the better-known Arthurian stories of thesis an established type known as the "beheading game". Developing from Welsh, Irish and English tradition, sir Gawain highlights the importance of honour and chivalry. Preserved in the same manuscript with Sir Gawayne were three other poems, now generally accepted as the work of the same author, including an intricate elegiac poem, pearl. 26 The English dialect of these poems from the midlands is markedly different from that of the london -based Chaucer and, though influenced by French in the scenes at court in Sir Gawain, there are in the poems also many dialect words, often of Scandinavian. 26 Middle English lasted until the 1470s, when the Chancery Standard, a london-based form of English, became widespread and the printing press started to standardise the language. Chaucer is best known today for The canterbury tales. This is a collection of stories written in Middle English (mostly in verse although some are in prose that are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together from southwark to the shrine of St Thomas Becket. Chaucer is a significant figure in the development of the legitimacy of the vernacular, middle English, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were still French and Latin. At this time, literature in England was being written in various languages, including Latin, norman-French, and English: the multilingual nature of the audience for literature in the 14th century is illustrated by the example of John Gower (c.
Piers Ploughman from a 14th-century manuscript Middle English Bible translations, notably wycliffe's Bible, helped to night establish English as a literary language. Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into middle English that were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, john Wycliffe. They appeared between about 1322 These bible translations were the chief inspiration and cause of the lollard movement, a pre- reformation movement that rejected many of the teachings of the roman Catholic Church. Another literary genre, that of Romances, appears in English from the 13th century, with King Horn and havelock the dane, based on Anglo-norman originals such as the romance of Horn (ca. 1170 but it was in the 14th century that major writers in English first appeared. These were william Langland, geoffrey chaucer and the so-called pearl poet, whose most famous work is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. 24 Langland's piers Plowman (written. 136087) or Visio willelmi de petro Plowman ( William's Vision of piers Plowman ) is a middle English allegorical narrative poem, written in unrhymed alliterative verse.
The longest is King Alfred 's (84999) 9th-century translation of boethius margaret ' consolation of Philosophy. 18 Middle English literature: edit main article: Middle English literature After the norman conquest of England in 1066, the written form of the Anglo-saxon language became less common. Under the influence of the new aristocracy, french became the standard language of courts, parliament, and polite society. As the invaders integrated, their language and literature mingled with that of the natives, and the norman dialects of the ruling classes became Anglo-norman. From then until the 12th century, anglo-saxon underwent a gradual transition into middle English. Political power was no longer in English hands, so that the west Saxon literary language had no more influence than any other dialect and Middle English literature was written in the many dialects that corresponded to the region, history, culture, and background of individual writers. 19 In this period religious literature continued to enjoy popularity and Hagiographies were written, adapted and translated: for example, the life of saint summary Audrey, eadmer 's (c. 20 At the end of the 12th century, layamon in Brut adapted the norman-French of Wace to produce the first English-language work to present the legends of King Arthur and the Knights of the round Table. It was also the first historiography written in English since the Anglo-saxon Chronicle.
Cædmon is the earliest English poet whose name is known, pages needed and his only known surviving work cædmon's Hymn probably dates from the late 7th century. The poem is one of the earliest attested examples of Old English and is, with the runic Ruthwell Cross and Franks Casket inscriptions, one of three candidates for the earliest attested example of Old English poetry. It is also one of the earliest recorded examples of sustained poetry in a germanic language. The poem, The Dream of the rood, was inscribed upon the ruthwell Cross. Pages needed Two Old English poems from the late 10th century are The wanderer and The seafarer. Both have a religious theme, and Richard Marsden describes The seafarer as "an exhortatory and didactic poem, in which the miseries of winter seafaring are used as a metaphor for the challenge faced by the committed Christian ". 17 Classical antiquity was not forgotten in Anglo-saxon England, and several Old English poems are adaptations of late classical philosophical texts.
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6 :179 Lotte hedeager argues that the myself work is far older, however, and that it likely dates back to the fill late 6th or early 7th century, citing the author's knowledge of historical details and accuracy as proof of its authenticity. 6 :184-186 She does note, however, that some authors, such as John Niles, have argued the work was invented in the 10th century. 6 :181-184 The Anglo-saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English, from the 9th century, that chronicle is the history of the Anglo-saxons. 7 The poem Battle of Maldon also deals with history. This is a work of uncertain date, celebrating the battle of Maldon of 991, at which the Anglo-saxons failed to prevent a viking invasion. Oral tradition was very strong in early English culture and most literary works were written to be performed.
9 10 Epic poems were very popular, and some, including beowulf, have survived to the present day. Beowulf is the most famous work in Old English, and has achieved national epic status in England, despite being set in Scandinavia. The only surviving manuscript is the nowell Codex, the precise date of which is debated, but most estimates place it close to the year 1000. Beowulf is the conventional title, and its composition is dated between the 8th 13 and the early 11th century. Pages needed nearly all Anglo-saxon authors are anonymous: twelve are known by name from medieval sources, but only four of those are known by their vernacular works with any certainty: Cædmon, bede, alfred the Great, and Cynewulf.
United Kingdom and, ireland. It does not include literature written in the other languages of Britain. The, english language has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. 1, the earliest forms of English, a set. Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to, great Britain by, anglo-saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the norman conquest of England.
Early modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to london and the king James Bible as well as the Great Vowel Shift. 3 Through the influence of the British Empire, the English language has spread around the world since the 17th century. Contents Old English literature:. 4501066 edit main article: Old English literature Old English literature, or Anglo-saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the saxons and other Germanic tribes in England ( Jutes and the Angles ). 450, after the withdrawal of the romans, and "ending soon after the norman Conquest" in 1066. These works include genres such as epic poetry, hagiography, sermons, bible translations, legal works, chronicles and riddles. 5 In all there are about 400 surviving manuscripts from the period. 5 Widsith, which appears in the Exeter book of the late 10th century, gives a list of kings of tribes ordered according to their popularity and impact on history, with Attila king of the huns coming first, followed by eormanric of the Ostrogoths. 6 :187 It may also be the oldest extant work that tells the battle of the goths and Huns, which is also told in such later Scandinavian works as Hervarar's saga and Gesta danorum.
English literature early modern writers
Mark lawson Talks to as byatt broadcast 2009 59 minutes the author discusses why book thinking matters just as much as feeling. Selected English-language writers: (left to right, top to bottom). Geoffrey chaucer, william Shakespeare, jane austen, mark first Twain, virginia woolf,. Eliot, vladimir Nabokov, toni morrison, salman Rushdie. This article is focused on, english-language literature rather than the literature of, england, so that it includes writers from. Scotland, wales, and the whole of, ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former. British Empire, including the, united States. However, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the.
Cover Stories Yann Martel broadcast 2003 15 minutes yann Martel speaks about his award-winning book 'life of pi'. Open book pat Barker broadcast 2003 27 minutes the author of 'The regeneration Trilogy' talks about her books. Book club Hanif Kureishi broadcast 2005 27 minutes the novelist discusses 'The buddha of Suburbia'. Stark talk marian keyes broadcast 2006 26 minutes the 'chick-lit' writer talks frankly about her life and career. Front Row Monica Ali broadcast 2006 8 minutes the author of 'Brick lane' on sudden success and the myth of the difficult second novel. Night surgery waves zoe heller broadcast 2008 10 minutes the author of 'notes on a scandal' discusses what fiction is all about. Night waves Zadie smith broadcast 2009 22 minutes philip Dodd speaks to zadie smith, author of 'White teeth'.
novelist, journalist, literary critic and feminist talks about her life and loves. Lively Arts John Fowles broadcast 1977 55 minutes melvyn Bragg talks to john Fowles at his home in Lyme regis. Doris Lessing broadcast 1980 30 minutes doris Lessing describes a life spent in unwilling judgement of civilisation's flaws. Motives Beryl bainbridge broadcast 1983 39 minutes can Dr Anthony Clare cure beryl bainbridge's case of writer's block? Third Ear Angela carter broadcast 1991 25 minutes refusing to write about the bourgeoisie and their cleaning ladies. Newsnight Margaret Atwood broadcast 2000 10 minutes the booker Prize-winning novelist discusses her work. Book club Penelope lively broadcast 2001 28 minutes the author of 'moon Tiger' discusses her work. Book club Salman Rushdie broadcast 2003 28 minutes james naughtie speaks to salman Rushdie about 'midnight's Children'.
Monitor, pg wodehouse, broadcast 1958 7 minutes, the creator of jeeves and wooster talks about his writing life. Broadcast 1958 7 minutes, em forster, in Cambridge, reflects on his life and work. Monitor, william Golding, broadcast 1959 17 minutes, the author of 'lord of the Flies' discusses his work and influences. John Wyndham, broadcast 1960 7 minutes, john Wyndham discusses the nature of evil in his novels. Modern novelists, iris Murdoch. Broadcast 1965 25 minutes, debating the artistic conflict between freedom and form. Intimations, lawrence durrell, broadcast 1965 30 minutes strong opinions from the author of 'The Alexandria quartet'. Intimations plan Robert Graves broadcast 1965 30 minutes the author of 'i, claudius' converses with Malcolm Muggeridge. Release jrr tolkien broadcast 1968 27 minutes the views of the author and Oxford's students on Tolkien's Middle-earth epics.
English, writing - a survey of literature
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. Modern Writers Interviews with remarkable authors. Modern Writers Collection, words fail me, virginia woolf. Broadcast 1937 8 minutes, virginia woolf describes the mysterious demands and duplicity of words. Panorama, w Somerset maugham, broadcast 1954 11 minutes, malcolm Muggeridge quizzes Somerset maugham on his top ten novels. Kingsley amis, broadcast 1958 5 minutes, the writer ponders the success of 'lucky jim' and his latest novels. Monitor, aldous Huxley, broadcast 1958 12 minutes. John Lehmann explores the 'brave thesis new world' of Aldous Huxley.