30 31 Childbirth is an inherently dangerous and risky procedure, subject to many complications. The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been estimated as being 1500 deaths per 100,000 births. 32 Modern medicine has greatly alleviated the risk of childbirth. In modern Western countries the current maternal mortality rate is around 10 deaths per 100,000 births. 33 Religious The hindu mother goddess Parvati feeding her son, the elephant-headed wisdom god Ganesha nearly all world religions define tasks or roles for mothers through either religious law or through the glorification of mothers who served in substantial religious events. There are many examples of religious law relating to mothers and women.
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The total fertility rate (tfr that is, the number of children born per woman, differs greatly from country to country. The tfr in 2013 was estimated to be highest in Niger (7.03 children born per woman) and lowest in Singapore (0.79 children/woman). 25 In the United States, the tfr was estimated for 2013.06 births per woman. 25 In 2011, the average age at first birth was.6 and.7 of births were to unmarried women. 26 health and safety issues main article: Maternal mortality maternal mortality map, 2012 Sub-Saharan African countries carry the highest risks in terms of maternal and infant mortality and health. A maternal death is defined by who as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management. 27 About 56 of maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and another 29 in south Asia. 28 In 2006, the organization save the Children has ranked the countries of the world, and found that Scandinavian countries are the safest places to give birth, whereas countries in sub-Saharan Africa are the least safe to give birth. 29 This study argues a mother resume in the bottom ten ranked countries is over 750 times more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth, compared to a mother in the top ten ranked countries, and a mother in the bottom ten ranked countries. The most recent data suggests that Italy, sweden and Luxembourg are the safest countries in terms of maternal death and Afghanistan, central African Republic and Malawi are the most dangerous.
Mothers thesis are more likely than fathers to encourage assimilative and communion-enhancing patterns in their children. 18 Mothers are more likely than fathers to acknowledge their children's contributions in conversation. The way mothers speak to their children ( "motherese" ) is better suited to support very young children in their efforts to understand speech (in context of the reference English) than fathers. 19 Since the 1970s, in vitro fertilization has made pregnancy possible at ages well beyond "natural" limits, generating ethical controversy and forcing significant changes in the social meaning of motherhood. 23 24 This is, however a position highly biased by western world locality: outside the western world, in-vitro fertilization has far less prominence, importance or currency compared to primary, basic healthcare, women's basic health, reducing infant mortality and the prevention of life-threatening diseases such. Traditionally, and still in most parts of the world today, a mother was expected to be a married woman, with birth outside of marriage carrying a strong social stigma. Historically, this stigma not only applied to the mother, but also to her child. This continues to be the case in many parts of the developing world today, but in many western countries the situation has changed radically, with single motherhood being much more socially acceptable now. For more details on these subjects, see legitimacy (family law) and single parent.
14 Regarding women in gender the workforce, mothers often entail a mommy track rather than being entirely " career women ". Mothers may be stay at home mothers or working mothers. In recent decades there has been an increase in stay at home fathers too. Social views on these arrangements vary significantly by culture: in Europe for instance, in German-speaking summary countries there is a strong tradition of mothers exiting the workforce and being homemakers. 15 Mothers have historically fulfilled the primary role in raising children, but since the late 20th century, the role of the father in child care has been given greater prominence and social acceptance in some western countries. 16 17 The 20th century also saw more and more women entering paid work. The social role and experience of motherhood varies greatly depending upon location.
Modern lesbian parenting (a term that somewhat erases the bisexual case) originated with women who were in heterosexual relationships who later identified as lesbian or bisexual, as changing attitudes provided more acceptance for non-heterosexual relationships. Another way for such women to become mothers is through adopting or foster parenting. There is also the option of self- insemination and clinically assisted donor insemination, forms of artificial insemination. As fertility technology has advanced, more females not in a heterosexual relationship have become mothers through in vitro fertilization. 9 10 Social role see also: Sociology of the family Sociology of motherhood Percentage of births to unmarried women, selected countries, 1911 Olga pearson Engdahl was American Mother of the year in 1963 12 The social roles associated with motherhood are variable across time, culture. 13 Historically, the role of women was confined to some extent to being a mother and wife, with women being expected to dedicate most of their energy to these roles, and to spend most of their time taking care of the home. In many cultures, women received significant help in performing these tasks from older female relatives, such as mothers in law or their own mothers.
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6 Modern systems of adoption, arising in the 20th century, tend to be governed by comprehensive statutes and paper regulations. In recent decades, international adoptions have become more and more common. Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries). 7 In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the us accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide. 8 Surrogate mother main article: Surrogacy a surrogate mother is a woman who bears a child that came from another woman's fertilized ovum on behalf of a couple unable to give birth to children. Thus the surrogate mother carries and gives birth to a child that she is not the biological mother.
Surrogate motherhood became possible with advances in reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Not all women who become pregnant via in vitro fertilization are surrogate mothers. Surrogacy involves both a genetic mother, who provides pink the ovum, and a gestational (or surrogate) mother, who carries the child to term. Motherhood in same-sex relationships The possibility for lesbian and bisexual women in same-sex relationships (or women without a partner) to become mothers has increased over the past few decades when? due to technological developments.
Biological mother biological motherhood for humans, as in other mammals, occurs when a pregnant female gestates a fertilized ovum (the "egg. Typically, a fetus develops from the viable zygote, resulting in an embryo. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus until the fetus (assuming it is carried to term ) is sufficiently developed to be born. In humans, gestation is often around 9 months in duration, after which the woman experiences labor and gives birth. This is not always the case, however, as some babies are born prematurely, late, or in the case of stillbirth, do not survive gestation.
Usually, once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process. The mother's breast milk is the source of antibodies for the infant's immune system and commonly the sole source of nutrition for the first year or more of the child's life. 3 4 5 Non-biological mother Mother can often apply to a woman other than the biological parent, especially if she fulfills the main social role in raising the child. This is commonly either an adoptive mother or a stepmother (the biologically unrelated partner of a child's father ). The term " othermother " or "other mother" is also used in some contexts for women who provide care for a child not biologically their own in addition to the child's primary mother. Adoption, in various forms, has been practiced throughout history, even predating human civilization.
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Women who are pregnant may be referred to as expectant mothers or mothers-to-be, though such applications tend to be less readily applied to (biological) fathers or adoptive parents. 1 2, contents, etymology, monumento a la madre in Mexico city. The inscription translates as "To diary her who loves us before she meets us". An American mother with her child. Mothers with children in liberated guinea-bissau, 1974. The modern English word is from Middle English moder, from Old English mōdor, from Proto-germanic *mōdēr (cf. East Frisian muur, dutch moeder, german Mutter from Proto-Indo-european *méhtēr (cf. Irish máthair, tocharian A mācar, b mācer, lithuanian mótė).
Mothers are women who inhabit or perform the role of bearing some relation to their children, who may or may not be their biological offspring. Thus, dependent on the context, women can be considered mothers by virtue of having given birth, by raising their child(ren supplying their ovum for fertilisation, or some combination thereof. Such conditions provide a way of delineating the concept of motherhood, or the state of being a mother. Women who meet the third and writer first categories usually fall under the terms 'birth mother' or 'biological mother regardless of whether the individual in question goes on to parent their child. Accordingly, a woman who meets only the second condition may be considered an adoptive mother, and those who meet only the third a surrogacy mother. The above concepts defining the role of mother are neither exhaustive nor universal, as any definition of 'mother' may vary based on how social, cultural, and religious roles are defined. The parallel conditions and terms for males: those who are (typically biologically) fathers do not, by definition, take up the role of fatherhood. Mother and fatherhood are not limited to those who are or have parented.
library offline. If we preserve mother Tongue, we preserve the literature and this is how we can preserve the culture. Rediscover Native literature is slogan of Matrubharti. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see. Mother (disambiguation), mothers (disambiguation), mom (disambiguation), mommy (disambiguation), mum (disambiguation), mothering (disambiguation), motherhood (disambiguation) and, maternity (disambiguation). A mother is the female parent of a child.
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