Why must the innocent suffer with the guilty?" diary of Dolly lunt Burge, a maine native, widow of Thomas Burge, and resident living. 40 miles southeast of Atlanta near covington, georgia. This entry from Mrs. Burge's diary was five weeks after most of General. Army forces had passed on their blackened-earth "march across georgia" toward savanna, after the army's destruction of Atlanta in mid-november 1864. Army mop-up companies and stragglers during those intervening weeks continued to "forage loot, burn, and liberate slaves, hence, the concern of Mrs.
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History Origins Pre-modern representations of the gift-giver from Church history and folklore, notably St Nicholas (known in Dutch as Sinterklaas merged with the English character Father Christmas to olive create the character known to Americans and the rest of the English-speaking world as "Santa Claus" (a. In the English and later British colonies of North America, and later in the United States, British and Dutch versions of the gift-giver merged further. For example, in Washington Irving 's History of New York (1809 sinterklaas was Americanized into "Santa Claus" (a name first used in the American press in 1773) 27 but lost his bishop's apparel, and was at first pictured as a thick-bellied Dutch sailor with. Irving's book was a lampoon of the dutch culture of New York, and much of this portrait is his joking invention. 19th century "December 24, 1864. This has usually been a very busy day with me, preparing for Christmas not only for my own tables, but for gifts for my servants. No confectionary, cakes, or pies can I have. We are all sad; no loud, jovial laugh from our boys is heard. Christmas eve, which has ever been gaily celebrated here, which has witnessed the popping of firecrackers and the hanging up of stockings, is an occasion now of sadness and gloom. I have nothing even to put in 8-year-old daughter Sadai's stocking, which hangs so invitingly for Santa Claus. How disappointed she will be in the morning, though I have explained to her why he cannot come.
Schmutzli carries a twig broom to spank the yardage naughty children. 21 Germanic paganism, wodan, and Christianization Prior to Christianization, the germanic peoples (including the English) celebrated a midwinter event called Yule (Old English geola or giuli ). 22 With the Christianization of Germanic Europe, numerous traditions were absorbed from Yuletide celebrations into modern Christmas. 23 During this period, supernatural and ghostly occurrences were said to increase in frequency, such as the wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky. Citation needed The leader of the wild hunt is frequently attested as the god Wodan (Norse Odin bearing (among many names ) the names Jólnir, meaning "Yule figure and Langbarðr, meaning "long-beard in Old Norse. 24 Wodan's role during the yuletide period has been theorized as having influenced concepts. Nicholas in a variety of facets, including his long white beard and his gray horse for nightly rides (compare Odin's horse Sleipnir ) or his reindeer in North American tradition. 25 Folklorist Margaret baker maintains that "the appearance of Santa Claus or Father Christmas, whose day is the 25th of December, owes much to Odin, the old blue-hooded, cloaked, white-bearded Giftbringer of the north, who rode the midwinter sky on his eight-footed steed Sleipnir, visiting. Odin, transformed into father Christmas, then Santa Claus, prospered with St Nicholas and the Christchild, became a leading player on the Christmas stage." 26 In Finland they still use joulupukki or the Christmas goat.
15 16 Dutch, belgian and Swiss folklore see also: Sinterklaas and saint Nicholas Sinterklaas, netherlands (2009) on his horse called Slecht weer Vandaag or Amerigo In the netherlands and Belgium the character of Santa Claus has to compete with that of Sinterklaas, santa's presumed progenitor. Santa Claus is known as de kerstman in Dutch the Christmas man and Père noël father Christmas in French. But for children in the netherlands Sinterklaas remains the predominant gift-giver in December; 36 of the dutch only give presents on Sinterklaas evening or the day itself (December 6 18 whereas Christmas (December 25) is used by another 21 to give presents. Some 26 of the dutch population gives presents on both days. 19 In Belgium, sinterklaas day presents are offered exclusively to children, whereas on Christmas day, all ages may receive presents. Sinterklaas' assistants are called " Zwarte pieten " (in Dutch, "Pères fouettard" in French so they are not elves. 20 In Switzerland, pères fouettard accompanies Père noël in the French speaking region, while the sinister Schmutzli accompanies Samichlaus in the Swiss German region.
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11 During the middle Ages, often on the evening before summary his name day of 6 December, children were bestowed gifts in his honour. This date was earlier than the original day of gifts for the children, which moved in the course of the reformation and its opposition to the veneration of saints in many countries on the 24th and 25 December. So saint Nicholas changed to santa Claus. The custom of gifting to children at Christmas has been propagated by martin Luther as an alternative to the previous very popular gift custom. Nicholas, to focus the interest of the children to Christ instead of the veneration of saints.
Martin Luther first suggested the Christkind as the bringer of gifts. But Nicholas remained popular as gifts bearer for the people. Father Christmas main article: Father Christmas Father Christmas dates back as far as 16th century in England during the reign of Henry viii, when he was pictured as a large man in green or scarlet robes lined with fur. 15 he typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, bringing peace, joy, good food and wine and revelry. 15 As England no longer kept the feast day of saint Nicholas on 6 December, the father Christmas celebration was moved to the 25th of December to coincide with Christmas day. 15 The victorian revival of Christmas included Father Christmas as the emblem of 'good cheer'. 16 His physical appearance was variable, 17 with one famous image being John leech's illustration of the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens 's festive classic a christmas Carol (1843 as a great genial man in a green coat lined with fur who takes.
In continental Europe (more precisely the netherlands, belgium, austria, the czech Republic and Germany) he is usually portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes. The remains of saint Nicholas are in Italy. In 1087, the Italian city of Bari mounted an expedition to locate the tomb of the saint. The reliquary. Nicholas was conquered by Italian sailors and his relics were taken to bari 8 9 where they are kept to this day. A basilica was constructed the same year to store the loot and the area became a pilgrimage site for the devout.
Sailors from Bari collected just half of Nicholas' skeleton, leaving all the minor fragments in the grave. These were collected by venetian sailors during the first Crusade and taken to venice, where a church. Nicholas, the patron of sailors, was built on the san Nicolò al Lido. This tradition was confirmed in two important scientific investigations of the relics in Bari and Venice, which revealed that the relics in the two Italian cities belong to the same skeleton. Saint Nicholas was later claimed as a patron saint of many diverse groups, from archers, sailors, and children to pawnbrokers. 7 10 he is also the patron saint of both Amsterdam and Moscow.
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Nicholas " and of caricaturist and political cartoonist Thomas Nast. 2 3 4 This image has been maintained and reinforced through song, radio, television, children's books, films, and advertising. Santa Claus is said to make lists of children throughout the year world, categorizing them according to their behavior good" and "bad or "naughty" and "nice and to deliver presents, including toys, and candy to all of the well-behaved children in the world, and coal. He accomplishes this feat parts with the aid of his elves, who make the toys in his workshop at the north Pole, and his flying reindeer, who pull his sleigh. 5 6 he is commonly portrayed as living at the north Pole, and often laughing in a way that sounds like "ho ho ho". Contents Predecessor figures saint Nicholas main article: saint Nicholas saint Nicholas of Myra was a 4th-century Greek christian bishop of Myra (now Demre ) in Lycia, a province of the byzantine Empire, now in Turkey. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes. 7 he was very religious from an early age and devoted his life entirely to Christianity.
Christmas day (25 December). 1, the modern Santa Claus grew out of traditions surrounding the historical. Saint Nicholas (a fourth-century Greek bishop and gift-giver of, myra the, british figure of, father Christmas and the. Dutch figure of, sinterklaas (himself also based on saint Nicholas). Some maintain Santa Claus also absorbed elements of the. Germanic god, wodan, who was associated with the pagan midwinter event. Yule and led the, wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky. Santa Claus is generally depicted as a portly, joyous, white- bearded man—sometimes with spectacles dhenu —wearing a red coat with white fur collar and cuffs, white-fur-cuffed red trousers, a red hat with white fur and black leather belt and boots and who carries a bag full. This image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th century due to the significant influence of the 1823 poem " a visit from.
was a relatively large. For other uses, see. This article is about the legendary character. The modern portrayal of Santa Claus frequently depicts him listening to children's Christmas wishes. Santa Claus, also known as, saint Nicholas, kris Kringle, father Christmas, or simply, santa, is a legendary figure originating. Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved good" or "nice children. Christmas eve (24 December) and the early morning hours.
Father Christmas is very busy at this time of year so he cant guarantee that hell send a reply, but hell do his best if you include your full name and address. Christmas stamps are available to buy in branch or online. Receive a letter or Video message From Santa Claus This Christmas. Write a letter to or directly message santa and Santa himself Receive a letter or Video message From Santa Claus This Christmaswill write you back directly from his office. You'll receive a personalised letter from Santa that will charm your loved ones. You can book also order a unique video from Santa where he greets your child by name. Your child's age, his photos and even the letter to santa he wrote will appear in the video that you'll receive in your inbox. Give your loved ones a gift of joy this Christmas and order a personalised message from Santa Claus himself!
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Skip to main content, letters to santa, if youre writing a letter to santa this Christmas, about here are three things that are good to Know. Santa has an official address. You can make sure your letter gets to father Christmas by using the official Santa address: Santa/Father Christmas, santa's Grotto, reindeerland, xM4 5HQ. The last posting date is 8th December. Get your card in the post to santa by Friday 8th December 2017. You can find a full list of the other last posting dates for Christmas here. Youll need a stamp, you must remember to stick a stamp on your letter or it wont get to santa.