Calixto garcía, gave hearst a cuban flag that had been riddled with bullets as a gift, in appreciation of hearst's major role in Cuba's liberation. 33 Expansion edit In part to aid in his political ambitions, hearst opened newspapers in some other cities, among them Chicago, los Angeles and Boston. In 1915, he founded International Film Service, an animation studio designed to exploit the popularity of the comic strips he controlled. The creation of his Chicago paper was requested by the democratic National Committee, and hearst used this as an excuse for Phoebe hearst to transfer him the necessary start-up funds. By the mid-1920s he had a nationwide string of 28 newspapers, among them the los Angeles Examiner, the boston American, the Atlanta georgian, the Chicago Examiner, the detroit Times, the seattle post-Intelligencer, the washington Times, the washington Herald, and his flagship, the san Francisco Examiner. Hearst also diversified his publishing interests into book publishing and magazines; several of the latter are still in circulation, including such periodicals as Cosmopolitan, good housekeeping, town and country, and Harper's bazaar. Cartoonist Rogers in 1906 sees the political uses of oz : he depicts hearst as the Scarecrow stuck in his own oozy mud in Harper's weekly.
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The most well-known story involved the imprisonment and release of Cuban prisoner evangelina cisneros. 25 29 While hearst and the yellow press did not directly cause America's war with Spain, they did inflame public opinion in New York city to a fever pitch. However New York's elites read other papers, such as the times and Sun which were far more restrained. The journal and the world were local papers oriented to a very large working class audience in New York city. They were not among the top ten sources of news in papers in other cities, and their stories simply did not make a splash outside new York city. 30 Outrage across the country came from evidence of what Spain was doing in Cuba, a major influence in the decision by congress to declare war. That is, war was declared by congress because public opinion was sickened by the bloodshed, and because leaders like mcKinley realized that Spain had fantasy lost control of Cuba. 31 These factors weighed more on the president's mind than the melodramas in the new York journal. 32 hearst sailed to cuba with a small army of journal reporters to cover the SpanishAmerican War in person, bringing along portable printing equipment, which was used to print a single edition newspaper in Cuba after the fighting had ended. Two bibliography of the journal's correspondents, james Creelman and Edward Marshall, were wounded in the fighting. A leader of the cuban rebels, gen.
Entry into the SpanishAmerican War, a war that some dubbed, "The journal 's War" due to the paper's immense influence in provoking American outrage against Spain. 24 Much of the coverage leading up to the war, beginning with the outbreak of the cuban revolution in 1895, was tainted by rumor, propaganda, and sensationalism, with the "yellow" papers regarded as the worst offenders. Indeed, the journal and other New York newspapers were so one-sided and full of errors in their list reporting that coverage of the cuban crisis and the ensuing SpanishAmerican War is often cited as one of the most significant milestones in the rise of yellow journalism. 25 Huge headlines in the journal assigned blame for the maine's destruction on sabotage—based on no actual evidence—and stoked outrage and indignation against Spain among the paper's readers in New York. Nevertheless, the journal's crusade against Spanish rule in Cuba was not due to mere jingoism, although "the democratic ideals and humanitarianism that inspired their coverage are largely lost to history as are their "heroic efforts to find the truth on the island under unusually difficult. 25 Perhaps the best known myth in American journalism is the claim, without any contemporary evidence, that famed illustrator Frederic Remington, sent by hearst to cuba to cover the cuban War of Independence, 25 telegrammed hearst to tell him all was quiet in Cuba. Supposedly hearst responded, "Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." 27 28 hearst was personally dedicated to the cause of the cuban rebels, and the journal did some of the most important and courageous reporting on the conflict—as well as some of the most sensationalized. In fact, their stories on the cuban rebellion and Spain's atrocities on the island—many of which turned out to be untrue 25 —were motivated primarily by outrage at Spain's brutal policies on the island, which led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of innocent.
Hearst probably lost several million dollars in his first three years as publisher of the journal (actual figures are impossible to verify). But the paper began turning a profit after it ended its fight with the world. 19 Under hearst, the journal remained loyal to the populist or left wing of the democratic Party, and was the only major publication in the east to support William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Its coverage of that historic election was probably the most important of any newspaper in the country, attacking relentlessly the unprecedented role of money in the republican campaign and the dominating role played by william McKinley 's political and financial manager, mark hanna, the first. 20 Only a year after taking over the paper, hearst could boast that sales of the journal's post-election issue (including the evening and German-language editions) topped.5 million, a record "unparalleled in the history of the world." 21 The journal's political coverage, however, was not entirely. Kenneth Whyte says that most editors of the time "believed their papers should speak with one voice on political matters hearst "helped to usher in the multi-perspective approach we identify with the modern op-ed page". 22 At first he was supportive of the russian revolution of 1917 but later he turned against. Hearst fought hard against Wilsonian internationalism, the league of Nations, and the world court, thereby appealing to an isolationist audience. 23 The SpanishAmerican War edit The morning journal's daily circulation routinely climbed above the 1 million mark after the sinking of the maine and.
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He was generous, paid more than his competitors, gave credit to his writers with page-one bylines, and was unfailingly polite, unassuming, "impeccably calm and indulgent of "prima donnas, eccentrics, bohemians, drunks, or reprobates so long as they play had useful talents". 15 hearst's activist approach to journalism can be summarized by the motto, "While others Talk, the journal Acts." Yellow journalism and rivalry with the new York world edit The new York journal and its chief rival, the new York world, mastered a style of popular. Pulitzer's World had pushed the boundaries of mass appeal for newspapers through bold headlines, aggressive news gathering, generous use of cartoons and illustrations, populist politics, progressive crusades, an exuberant public spirit, and dramatic crime and human-interest stories. Hearst's journal used the same recipe for success, forcing Pulitzer to drop the price of the world from two cents to a penny. Soon the two papers were locked in a fierce, often spiteful competition for readers in which both papers spent large sums of money and saw huge gains in circulation. Within a few months of purchasing the journal, hearst hired away pulitzer's three top editors: Sunday editor Morrill Goddard, who greatly expanded the scope and appeal of the American Sunday newspaper, solomon Carvalho, and a young Arthur Brisbane, who became managing editor of the hearst. Contrary to popular assumption, they were not lured away by higher pay—rather, each man had grown tired of both the temperamental, domineering Pulitzer and the paranoid, back-biting office politics which he encouraged.
16 While hearst's many critics attribute the journal's incredible success to cheap sensationalism, as Kenneth Whyte noted in The Uncrowned King: The sensational Rise Of William Randolph hearst, "Rather than racing to the bottom, he hearst drove the journal and the penny press upmarket. The journal was a demanding, sophisticated paper by contemporary standards. " 17 Though yellow journalism would be much maligned, "All good yellow journalists. Sought the human in every story and edited without fear of emotion or drama. They wore their feelings on their pages, believing it was an honest and wholesome way to communicate with readers." But, as Whyte pointed out, "This appeal to feelings is not an end in ey believed our emotions tend to ignite our intellects: a story catering.
See also: hearst Communications searching for an occupation, in 1887, hearst took over management of a newspaper, the san Francisco Examiner, which his father received in 1880 as repayment for a gambling debt. 9 giving his paper a grand motto, "Monarch of the dailies he acquired the best equipment and the most talented writers of the time, including Ambrose bierce, mark Twain, jack london, and political cartoonist Homer davenport. A self-proclaimed populist, hearst went on to publish stories of municipal and financial corruption, often attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the san Francisco market. New York morning journal edit early in his career at the san Francisco Examiner, hearst envisioned running a large newspaper chain, and "always knew that his dream of a nation-spanning, multi-paper news operation was impossible without a triumph in New York".
10 11 In 1895, with the financial support of his mother, he bought the failing New York morning journal, hiring writers like stephen Crane and Julian Hawthorne and entering into a head-to-head circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer, owner and publisher of the new York world. Outcault, the inventor of color comics, and all of Pulitzer's Sunday staff as well. 12 Another prominent hire was James. Montague, who came from the portland Oregonian and started his well-known "More Truth Than poetry" column at the hearst-owned New York evening journal. 13 When hearst purchased the "penny paper so called because its copies sold for only a penny apiece, the journal was competing with New York's 16 other major dailies, with a strong focus on Democratic Party politics. 14 hearst imported his best managers from the san Francisco Examiner and "quickly established himself as the most attractive employer" among New York newspapers.
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6 hearst's remote mother, née phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was also of Irish ancestry; her family came from Galway. 7 She was the first woman regent of University of California, berkeley, funded many anthropological expeditions and founded the Phoebe. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Following preparation. Paul's School in Concord, new Hampshire, hearst enrolled in the harvard College class of 1885. While there he was a member of Delta kappa Epsilon, the. Club (a harvard Final club the hasty pudding Theatricals, and of the lampoon before being expelled for antics ranging from sponsoring massive beer parties in Harvard Square to sending pudding pots used as chamber pots to his professors (their images were depicted within the bowls). 8 Publishing business edit An ad asking automakers to place ads in hearst chain, noting their circulation.
Contents Ancestry and pro early life edit william. Hearst was born in San Francisco to millionaire mining engineer, goldmine owner and. Senator (188691) george hearst and his wife Phoebe Apperson hearst. His paternal great-grandfather was John hearst of Ulster Protestant origin. John hearst migrated to America from Ballybay, county monaghan, as part of the cahans Exodus with his wife and six children in 1766 and settled in south Carolina. Their immigration to south Carolina was spurred in part by the colonial government's policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants. 5 The names "John hearse" and "John hearse." appear on the council records of October 26, 1766, being credited with meriting 400 and 100 acres (1.62 and.40 km2) of land on the long Canes (in what became Abbeville district based upon 100 acres (0.40 km2). The "Hearse" spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. A separate theory purports that one branch of a "Hurst" family of Virginia (originally from Plymouth Colony) moved to south Carolina at about the same time and changed the spelling of its surname of over a century to that of the immigrant hearsts.
for an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs. He was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist, and deeply suspicious of the league of Nations and of the British, French, japanese, and Russians. 3, he was a leading supporter of Franklin roosevelt in 193234, but then broke with fdr and became his most prominent enemy on the right. His peak circulation reached 20 million readers a day in the mid-1930s, but he was a bad money manager and was so deeply in debt that most of his assets had to be liquidated in the late 1930s; he managed to keep his newspapers and. His life story was the main inspiration for. Charles Foster Kane, the lead character in, orson Welles 's film, citizen Kane. His famous mansion, hearst Castle, on a hill overlooking the pacific Ocean near San Simeon, is now a state historical Monument and a national Historic Landmark.
The new York journal and fought a bitter circulation war with. Joseph Pulitzer 's, new York world that sold papers by giant headlines over lurid stories featuring crime, corruption, graphics, sex, and innuendo. Acquiring more newspapers, hearst created a chain that numbered nearly thirty papers in major American cities at its peak. He later expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. He was twice elected. Democrat to the,. House of Representatives, and ran unsuccessfully for, president of the United States in 1904, mayor of New York city presentation in 19for governor of New York in 1906. Politically he espoused the left wing of the. Progressive movement, speaking on behalf of the working class.
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For other people named William Randolph hearst, see. William Randolph hearst (disambiguation). William Randolph hearst. ( /hɜrst/ ; 2, april 29, 1863 august 14, 1951) was an American businessman, politician, and newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company. Hearst Communications and whose flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories. Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 after being given control. The san Francisco Examiner by his summary wealthy father. Moving to new York city, he acquired.